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an infinitive(不定詞)

簡介
不定詞用法:
    做名詞
     ex:to learn english is easy (做主詞)
     ex:i want to go (做受詞)
     ex:to see is to believe (做主詞補語)
     ex:i want him to know it (做受詞補語)

    當形容詞
     ex:i want some coffee to drink 我要來點咖啡喝 (修飾名詞)
    當副詞
     ex:he stopped to have a rest (修飾動詞)
     ex:i am glad to see you (修飾形容詞)
     ex:it was too cold to swim (修飾副詞)

    和疑問詞組成名詞片語
     ex:how to do it is the question 如何作是個問題
省略to的不定詞時機:
    出現感官動詞,使役動詞,幾個特定的動詞和慣用語時
不定詞時式分:
    簡單式與完成式
獨立不定詞用法

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常接不定詞的動詞
offer ex:he offered to lend me some money
decide  ex:he decided to buy a new car
plan ex:I am planning to go to Taipei next week
promise ex:he promised to be late for the meeting 
need ex: I need to do my homework.
expect ex:when do you expect to go to Taipei?
want ex:I want to watch TV.
其他常見的還有hope,intend,mean,agree,refuse,seem,appear,pretend,learn,try,afford,wait
ps
否定用法
ex:he decided not to buy a new car.

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不定詞當名詞有以下用法
1,不定詞做主詞補語
  句型:s v to+v  ex:to see is to believe
2,不定詞做主詞
 句型1:to+v=it...to+v(用it做虛主詞,to+v放到後面),ps:皆為單數動詞
    ex:to tell a lie is wrong= it is wrong to tell a lie 說謊是錯的
 句型2:it is adj [for|of] 人 to+v,(真正的主詞是to v,it是虛主詞)
    用for表和事物有關,前面adj通常為
    hard(硬的,困難的).possible,impossible,important,necessary,essential(必要的),convenient(合宜的),difficult,hard,easy,useless(無用的)...
    ex:it is difficult for him to do so 要他這樣做是有困難的
    用of表和人有關,前面adj通常為:
    nice,kind,wise聰明的,good,polite有禮貌的,right,clever伶俐的,bad,wrong,cruel殘忍的,stupid,foolish愚蠢的,impolite無禮的
    ex:it is very kind of you to help me 你能幫助我,你實在太好了
3,不定詞做受詞或受詞補語
 句型1:s v to+vs v o to+v
    ex:i like to go 我喜歡去(to v當受詞)
    ex:i want him to know it 我要他知道此事(to v當受詞補語)

 句型2:s v it [adj|a+n] to+v ,(it為虛受詞,真正的受詞是to v)
    v通常用find,think,believe,consider,make,take,...等
    ex:i think it better not to go 我認為不去比較好
    ex:i make it a rule to get up early 我習慣早起(it make it a rule to=使成為習慣)


不定詞當形容詞有以下用法
1,修飾名詞或代名詞
句型1:[n|pron]+to+vt
    ex:i want some coffee to drink 我要來點咖啡喝
句型2:[n|pron]+to+vi+介詞
    ex:give him a chair to sit on 給他一張椅子座(a chair to sit on=sit on a chair)
    ex:i have no money to buy a book with我沒有錢買書(money to buy a book with=buy a book with money)
    ex:i has no house to live in 他沒有房子住(a house to live on=live in a house)

不定詞當副詞有以下用法
1,可修飾動詞,形容詞,副詞
    修飾動詞,ex:he stopped to have a rest
    修飾形容詞,ex:i am glad to see you
    修飾副詞,ex:it was too cold to swim
2,表正面目地
  句型:[in order|so as|]+to+原v,(=in order that s v)
    ex:i come to see her = i come in order to see her 我來為了看到她
    ex:in order to write a report on stars,we decided to observe the stars in the sky every night 為了要撰寫一篇有關星球的報導,我們決定每晚觀測天空的星象

3,表反面目地
  句型:[in order|so as]+not+to+原v
    ex:he went away in order not to see me 他走掉以免看到我
4,表正面結果
  句型:so+[adj|adv]+as to+原v=[adj|adv]+enough to+原v,(=so+[adj|adv]+that+s+v)
    ex:he studied so hard as to pass the examination 他很用功以致能通過考試
    = he studied hard enough to pass the examination

5,表反面結果
  句型:too+[adj|adv]+to
go
=not+[adj|adv]+enough to+原v
    ex:he is too young to go to school 他年紀太小不能上學
    = he is not old enough to go to school
 
句型:enough+n (for人) to 原v
  ex:I don't have enough money to buy that house我沒有足夠的錢以致於無法買房子 
  句型:only to+原v
    ex;he worked hard,only to fail 他努力工作結果卻失敗
6,表原因,句型:人+be+adj+to+v... ,adj通常為以下
    快樂喜歡:happy,lucky,glad,pleased,delighted...
    悲傷失望:sad,sorry,disappointed...
    驚訝震驚:surprised,shocked,frightened...
    興奮渴望:excited,eager,anxious...
    羞恥害怕:ashamed,afraid...
    ex:i was pleased to see him again 我很高興再見到你
    = i was pleased because i saw him again

不定詞和疑問詞組成名詞片語
   用法:疑問詞+不定詞=名詞片語
    當主詞  ex:how to do it is the question 如何作是個問題
    當受詞  ex:i don't know what to say 我不知該說什麼
    當補語  ex:my trouble is how to solve the problem 我的困難是如何來解決該問題

ps:as for(至於),as to(關於=concerning=about=regarding)
  ex:as for the critical words,i have no comments 至於這些尖酸的話,我沒什麼好評論的
  ex:as to where to go and what to do,you can decide it by yourself關於何去何從,你可以自己做決定


ps:不定詞片語置於句首,表示目的之意
ex:to pass the test , you should study hard 若想考及格,你應該努力才是

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省略to的時機:
當前面動詞為感官動詞或使役動詞,以及助動詞和一些慣用語時省略to
1 省略to的慣用語,後須接原v
    had better最好
     ex:you had better not go there 你最好不要去那裡
    would rather=had rather寧願,(would rather...than+原v)
     ex:i would rather die than do it 我寧死也不願做這種事
    do nothing but只是
     ex:he does nothing but play all day 他整天只是玩
    cannot but不得不,=be obliged to,(ps:cannot help+ving)
     ex:i cannot but laugh 我無法不笑
    may well有足夠的理由
     ex:he may well be proud 他很有理由自豪
2 可省略to的動詞,後接原v,這類動詞有go,come,help+vrt
    ex:go get it 去抓它!
    ex:come lie down here! 過來躺在這裡
    ex:the boy helps his mother get rid of the rats 這個男孩幫他的母親趕走老鼠
3 感官動詞後可省略to
    感官動詞有:see, look, watch, listen, hear, listen,sound, taste, smell, feel,notice...
    ex:i saw him swim yesterday 昨天我看見他游泳
    注意:感官動詞用於被動式時,則不可省略to
    ex:she was seen to enter this room last night 昨晚有人看見她進入這房間
4 使役動詞後可省略to,使役動詞有have,make,let,...
    ex:i have him go 我要他去
    ex:he made me tell the truth 他叫我說實說
    ex:let me go! 讓我走吧

    注意:若遇到 s be made 的句型,則不可省略to
    ex:he was made to go 他被迫而走

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不定詞時式
分為簡單式與完成式兩種時式,並且常會用到以下動詞:
seem/appear似乎,it is said據說,it is believed我們相信,it is thought大家認為,i am sorry

1 簡單式句型:s+v+to+原v
   說明:to v和句中動詞的時間同時發生
    ex:he seems to be ill 他現在好像有病
    ex:it seems to be a little problem here 這裡好像有點問題

    若句中動詞表示希望,打算,期待..等,則表示未來時間
    ex:i hope to see you again 我希望再見到你
2 完成式句型:s+v+to have+pp
   說明:to have pp的發生時間比句中動詞早
    ex:he seems to have been ill 他好像生過病
    ex:i am sorry to have offended you the other day 很抱謙前幾天惹你生氣

    若句中動詞用過去式並表示希望,打算,期待..等,則表示過去未實現的願望
    ex:i hoped to have finished the book 我原本希望讀完這本書,但沒有
ps:希望,打算,期待,...等動詞通常為hope/wish,mean/intend打算,expect期待,promise答應

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獨立不定詞
用逗點和其他部份分開,為副詞用法,慣用語如下:
to tell the truth說實話,to make matters worse更糟的是,to do one justice公平而論,to be frank with you坦白地說
to sum up總之,to be sure的確,to be brief簡言之,to begin with第一/首先
strange to say說也奇怪,needless to say不用說,so to speak所謂,not to mention更不用說
ex:to tell the truth,i don't like him 老實說,我不喜歡他
ex:to sum up,she is a nice girl 總之,她是個可愛的女孩
ex:he is,so to speak,a walking dictionary 他可以說是個活字典
ex:to do him justice,we must admit that his intentions were good 公平而論,我們必須承認他的用意是好的


ps:
it is strange to say that說也奇怪=strange to say
 ex:it is strange to say that he did this just for his own benefit說來奇怪,他做這件事只是為了自己的利益
it is needless to say that不用說=needless to say
 ex:it is needles to say that faith is essential to any religion 當然信心對宗教是不可缺少的
it is not too much to say that說...也不過份
 ex:it is not too much to say that he deserves it 說這是他應得的並不過份
desire nothing but to vrt只想(ps:think of nothing but ving只想)
 ex:i desired nothing but to win the lottery 我只想嬴得彩券




參考資料:各大英文書藉與網路資料..等

2008-07-17 16:50:44發表   


 


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