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an auxiliary verb(助動詞)

簡介
一般的助動詞(後需接原形)
 can/could
 may/might
 must
 will/would
 shall/should
可兼作本動詞的助動詞
 be動詞(is/am/are)
 have/has
 do/does
 need/dare
長的較特別的助動詞
 have to/had to
 ought to
 had better


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一般常見的助動詞(後需接原形)

1,
can/could
can的否定形式:cannot, can not, can't 
could的否定形式:could not, couldn't

can
在肯定句
 表能力,
 ex:he can swim 他會游泳
 表能力can=be able to(可以),未來式要用will be able to,   
 ex:you will be able to get it 你將可得到它
 (可能可以用be likely to)
 表允許
 ex:you can have a cookie 你能有餅干 
在疑問句
 表示強烈懷疑   
 ex:can it be true? 這可能是真的嗎
 請求允許(最不正式) 
 ex:can I please borrow your car?
 請求幫忙(最不正式) 
 ex:can you please open the door ?  
否定句表不可能之意
   ex:it can not be true 這不可能是真的
慣用語常見有,cannot+[but+原v|help+ving](不得不),cannot...too...(再...也不為過/越...越好)
  ex:i cannot but laugh 我禁不住笑起來
  ex:you cannot be too diligent 你再怎麼勤勞也不為過

could(can的過去式) 
在肯定句
 表過去能力
 ex:he could walk when he was one year old 
 表示可能性(=may,might)
 ex:it could start raining in anytime    
在疑問句
 請求幫忙 
 ex:could you come and see me tomorrow ? 明天能請你來見我嗎?
 請求允許
 ex: could I please borrow your car ?

 

2,
may/might
may的否定形式:may not, mayn't
might的否定形式:might not, mightn't 

may
在肯定句
 表許可時,解釋為可以 
 ex:you may go there at once你可以馬上去那裡 

 表推測時,解釋為可能,對過去的推測可用may+have pp
  ex:he may have said so 他可能這樣說過
  ex:it may be true 這可能是真的
在疑問句
 請求允許
 ex:may I please borrow your car ? 
在祈使句
 表祈願時,解釋為願...,祝,句型為may+s+原v
  ex:may god bless you 願上帝祝福你
  ex:may you succeed!祝你成功

表目地時,解釋為以便或以求,常用片語有[so|in order] that+s+may+原v
慣用語常用有may well+原v(有足夠的理由),may as well+原v(不妨,倒不如)
    ex:you may well think so 你有理由這樣想
   
ex:you may as well go at once 你最好馬上去

might(may的過去式)
在肯定句
 表推測
  ex:if you were lazy,you might fail 你如果懶惰,說不定你會失敗 (假設法)
在疑問句
 請求允許 
  ex:might i ask your name請問尊姓大名 (客氣請求)

 

3
must
must的否定形式:must not或mustn't 

must
肯定句,
解釋為一定,表示推測
 現在的推測用must+原v
 ex:you must be tired 你一定累壞
 過去的推測用must+have pp
 ex:it must have rained last night ,for the ground is wet now 昨晚一定下過兩,因為現在地上是潮濕的
否定句,
 表示否定的推論
 ex:he must not like her 他一定不喜歡她  
 表示禁止 
 ex:you must not smoke here 你不可以在這裡吸煙
ps:
解釋為必須,多用於肯定句,類似have to,have got to,但must會較強調必需的意思,而且較常用在書面指示中  
ex:you must obey your parents你必須聽從父母的話


4
will/would

will的否定形式為
will not/won't
would的否定形式:would not / wouldn't

will
主要用於未來式
疑問句:請求幫忙
 ex:Will you open the door?  

would(wll的過去式)
肯定句:
 過去未來式 ex:he said he would come. 他說過他會來的 
 表示過去不定期的習慣 ex:he would often get up early 他過去常早起   
 大概會 ex:I think he would accept your invitation. 我想他大概會接受你的邀請      
否定句:
 ex: you wouldn't believe the thing 你無法相信這件事  
疑問句
 請求幫忙 ex:would you come in?  請進來好嗎?
假設語氣(被用於可能性小並與事實相反的情況下,或用在If引導的條件句中) 
 ex: If I was teacher, I would not exam

慣用語常用有
would that(但願),
 ex:would that i were young again 但願我在度年輕 (would that=i wish (that))
would like to+原v(想...) ex:i would like to see him 我想見見他
would rather+原v(寧願...) ex:i would rather go 我寧願去
would rather+原v + than +原v (寧願...而不願...) ex:he would rather visit a big city than live there 他寧願參觀觀大城市也不要住在那


5,
shall/should 
shall
否定形式:shall not/shouldn't
should的否定形式:should not/shouldn't

should(shall的過去式)
表義務時,解釋為應該
,可用ought to代替
 ex:you should take more notice of your own safety 你要多注意自己的安全
 ex:we ought to obey the law 我們應該服從法律
當時應該要做但沒做,或表後悔可用should+have pp=ought to have pp
 ex:you should have called me last night 你作晚應該打電話給我,但沒有
 ex: you should have treated her well before she disliked you 在她討厭你之前,你早該對她好的
 ex:i should have been told about their wedding party 早該把他們的婚禮之事告訴我(過去應該+被動)
 ex:you ought to have told me 你早應該告訢我
表假設時,解釋為萬一,
 ex:if it should rain,he would not come 萬一下雨他就不會來
在表示遺憾驚訝應當的主要子句所接的名詞子句中,句型為it is adj that s should+原v,adj常為以下
 a pity可惜,necessary,strange奇怪,natural當然,surprising
 ex:it is surprising that he should be so foolish 他竟是那麼愚笨,實在令人驚訝
常用慣用語有,lest+s+should(唯恐)
, shall s 原v ...(s 將...?)
 ex;i get up early lest i should miss the first train 我早起唯恐我錯過了第一班火車
 ex:shall we have dinner somewhere after the movie ? 看完電影後,我們是否該找個地方吃晚飯?

 

...... 

禁止用法
may not(不准),must not(禁止),
can not(不可能)

請求幫忙用法
would you ex:would you open the door 
would you please+原v ex:would you please help us ? 請你幫助我們好嗎
could you ex:could you open the door 
will you ex:will you open the door 
can you(最不正式) ex:can you open the door  
ps:無may you的用法

請求允許
may I ex:may I borrow your pen?
could I ex:could I borrow your pen?
can I(最不正式) ex:can I borrow your pen?

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可兼做本動詞及助動詞兩用者

1,
be動詞(am/is/are)
過去式:was/were
作本動詞用途,解釋為是,有(和there合用)之意  ex:there are many books on the desk 在桌上有許多書
作助動詞用途,成為進行式be+ving,和被動式be+pp

2,
have/has
過去式:had
作本動詞用途,解釋為擁有  ex:i have some money 我有一些錢
作使役動詞用途,(have+人+原v)解釋為使~去做或叫~去做;(have+物+pp)解釋為某物被~
    ex:i have him wash my car 我叫他洗我的車
     ex:i had his hair cut yesterday 我昨天理了髮
作助動詞用途,成為完成has/have+pp   ex:i have lived here for 3 years 我住在這裡己三年了
和to合用變have to解釋為必須  ex:he has to go there now 他現在必須去那裡

3,
do/does
過去式:did
作本動詞用途,避免重覆用 ex:he runs faster than i do (do=run)他跑的比我快
作助動詞用途,疑問句(do you ...)與否定句(did not...)需要

4,
need
(需要)/dare(敢做...)
否定形式:need not/dare not或needn't/daren't
做本動詞時,
後接to v,若是疑問及否定句時前要像一般動詞前加do/don't
    ex:he don't need to go now 他不必現在去
做助動詞時,後接原形
    ex:he need not go now 他不必現在去
ps:(動詞用)do not neet to hurry = (助動用)needn't hurry

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長的較特別的助動詞

have to(必須) 
過去式為had to 
肯定句,解釋為必須,比must較常用在口語與書寫
 ex:you have to study tonight 你必須在今晚讀書
 白話會用have got to
 ex:you have got to study tonight
否定句,解釋為不必
 ex:you don't have to study tonight 你不必在今晚讀書
ps:
have to的否定形式: don't have to 
had to的否定形式: didn't have to
 

ought to(應該) 
通常只用在肯定句 
ex:you ought to go home 

had better(最好)
通常只用在肯定句和否定句
ex:we had better not compromise with such a mean and self-centered person 我們最好不要和這樣一個既卑鄙又自我中心的人妥協
ex:the boy had better behave himself 這個男孩最好規矩一點
ex:you had better not eat that meat

prefer [n|ving] to [n|ving] (偏愛)
ex:he prefer oranges to apples
ex:he prefer sudying to watching TV

like [n|ving] better than [n|ving] (偏愛) 
ex:he like oranges better than apples
ex:he like studying better than watching TV


參考資料:圖解英文法精通和其他書藉與網路資料..等

2008-07-17 16:51:07發表   


 


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