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adjective clause(形容詞子句)

形容詞子句
簡介
引導形容詞子句的連接詞有:
     關係代名詞:who,whose,whom,which,that
     準關係代名詞:but,as,than
     關係副詞:where,when,why,how 
關係代名詞用法:
     限定用法:修飾先行詞
     非限定用法:對先行詞補充說明
關係代名詞引導的子句結構:
   做主格:先行詞+關代+v...
   做所有格:先行詞+關代+n+v...
   做受格:先行詞+(關代)+s+[vt|vi+介]
介+關代轉關係副詞:
  [in|at|on] which=where
  [in|at|on] which=when
  for which=why
  in which = how

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限定用法:
修飾先行詞,
結構為:不清楚的事或人+關代
ex:the man who wrote this essay is a journalist 寫這篇散文的人是一位記者
以及需要限定種類時
ex:a heavenly body which moves around the sun is called a planet 繞著太陽轉的天體稱為行星
或指同類的其中一種時
ex:the calculators which are not working well must be repaired 故障的計算機必須好好修理一下
非限定用法:
對先行詞作補充說明,結構為:
專有名詞或唯一的人或物 + , +關代
ex:i met mary, who asked me to give you this 我遇到mary,她要我把這個交給你
用在若該物只有一個
ex:the earth,which moves around the sun,is called a planet繞著太陽轉的地球,稱為行星
或指同類全體事物時
ex:the calculators , which are not working well,must be repaired 那些計算機都有點故障,必須修理一下

ps:1
關代不可用that,2非限定形容詞子句前後用逗點分開
限定與非限定句型比較
ex:
we have two daughters who became nurse 我有2位成為護士的女兒(我不一定只有兩位女兒)
we have two daughters , who became nurse 我有2位女兒,這2位女兒成為護士(我只有兩位女兒)

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關係代名詞=連接詞+代名詞
關係代名詞句型結構:先行詞 + 關代 + 不完整子句(形容詞子句)
而關係代名詞當主格,所有格,受格時,形容詞子句結構會不太一樣

1,當主格時
句型結構:先行詞
+關代+v... ,(動詞v的數與人稱需和先行詞相同)
先行詞=人,結構為: 人+who+v...  ,先行詞為人,或欲將擬人化時
 ex:belle was the person who changed him into a gentleman. belle就是把他改變成紳士的人
 ex:the man who repaired my car is good at his job幫我修車的人技術很好
 ex:we have a pet mynah who is always mimicking human speech 我們養了一支九官鳥,牠總愛模仿人們說話
 ex:i met an old friend of mine,who didn't recognize me 我遇到一位老朋友,而他不認識我了

先行詞=物,結構為: 物+which+v...   ,先行詞可以是動物或事情
 ex:a dictionary is a book which gives you the meaning of words 字典是為你解釋字義的書
 ex:animals which are in cages are not happy 關在籠裡的動物並不幸福
 ex:our car,which is second-hand,never breaks down 我們的車是二手車,但從沒有故障過

先行詞=人或物,結構為:物或人+that+v...  
 ex:i saw a boy and his dog that were walking in the park 我看到一個男孩跟他的狗在公園散步
 ex:the girl that offered an old man her seat in the train had a large bag 在火車上讓位給老人的女孩拿著一個大袋子

注意以下省略法
先行詞
+(關代+be) +[ving|pp],可把(關代+be)省略掉
ex:There are only few options (which are) open to you 你的選擇很少
ex:i like to teach children (who are) aged six and above 我喜歡教六歲以上的小朋友
ex:the girl (who is) writing a letter is mary 在寫信的那個女孩是瑪麗
ex:she bought a camera (which was) made in japan 她買了一台日製照相機

先行詞+[關代+v|ving] ,可省略關代並將v變成ving  (v常為繼續性質如wish,know,have,love,belong to...)
ex:do you know the girl [sitting|who sits] there?
there/here+bev+先行詞+(關代)+v 或 先行詞+(關代)+there/here+bev 都可省略關代
ex:there is someone (who) want to see you 有人想要見你
ex:this is the only bow tie (that) there is in this store  這是這家店裡唯一的一個蝴蝶領結

2,當受格時,
句型結構為:先行詞+(關代)+s+[vt|vi+介]  (1不可在v後接受詞 ,2 限定用法關代可省略)
先行詞=人,結構為:人+(whom)+s+[vt|vi+介]
ex:the doctor (whom) she visited gave her the wrong prescription 她在看的那位醫生給了她錯誤的處方箋
ex:the man (whom) you met is my uncle 我們遇見的那個人是我的叔叔
ex:he introduced me to his wife,whom he obviously adored 他向我介紹他太太,很明顯地,他對他太太很鐘情

先行詞=物,結構為:物+(which)+s+v
ex:the book (which) he gave to me was very intereting 他給我的書非常有趣
ex:i like the house (which) he lives in 我喜歡他住的房子
ex:air,which we breathe,is made up of many gases我們呼吸的空氣,是由很多氣體組成的

先行詞=人或物,結構為:人或物+(that)+s+v
ex:i'm not interested in things (that) i don't understand 我對不了解的事情不感興趣
ex:he is a man (that) you want to work with 他是一個會讓你想和他共事的人

3 ,當所有格
句型結構為:先行詞+關代+n+v... 
先行詞=人,結構為: 
人+whose+n+v... 
ex:i have a friend whose father is a teacher 我有一個朋友,他的父親在當老師
先行詞=物,結構為: 人+[whose|of which]+n+v...
ex:the book [whose|of which] cover is green is mine 封面是綠色的那本書是我的
ex:she mentioned a book whose title has slipped my memory 她提到一本書,可是我忘了它的書名了
ex:canterbury ,whose cathedral is famous ,is in kent  坎特貝里市以其大教堂而聞名,位於肯特郡
主詞和受詞的位置
 主詞用法
 ex:I know a boy. his brother is a movie star.
 = I know a boy whose brother is a movie star 

 受詞用法
 ex:I know a girl. we bought her TV
 =I know a girl whose TV we bought  


4,介系詞用法  
可將介系詞移到關代前,較形式化的文章多採此結構
結構為:先行詞+介+關代+s+vi
先行詞=人,結構為:
人+介+whom+s+vi,但關代不可省略
ex:is that the man for whom you are waiting ? 那個是你在等待的人嗎?
=is that the man (whom) you are waiting for ?
ex:the man to whom i spoke is my uncle 我跟他說話的那個人是我的叔叔
=the man (whom) i spoke to is my uncle

先行詞=物,結構為:
人+介+(which)+s+vi
ex:the music to (which) we listened last night was by beethoven 昨晚我們聽的音樂是貝多芬所做的曲子
= the music (which) we listened to last night was by beethoven

注意:that不可放介詞後,只有whom和which可以
ps
若由動詞或形容詞+介詞組成的片語,介詞只可放後面,像是do with...(戒掉...),...等
ex:this is the habit which you must to do with 你必須戒掉這習慣 


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補充1:會採用that做關係代名詞的情況有:
1 先行詞為最高級形容詞,或有序數first,及the only(唯一的),the very(正是那個),the same(同一的)...等
ex:this is the hottest summer that were have had in thirty years 今年夏天是三十年來最熱的一個夏季
ex:the hummingbird is the only bird that can fly like a helicopter 蜂鳥是唯一可像直昇機一樣飛行的鳥類
ex:she is not the same person that i know anymore 她不再是我認識的那個人了

2 先行詞為
all,any*,everything,little,much,no*時
ex:is there anything that i can do?有沒有什麼我可以做的事情?
ex:there was little that interested him at the motor show 車展中幾乎沒有什麼吸引他的產品

3 以who,which開頭的疑問句
ex:who is the man that has white hair 那位白髮的人是誰
ex:which is the book that you borrowed from the library? 那本書是你從圖書館借來的?

4 加強句子時用的it is ... that
ex;it was columbus that discovered america in 1492  在1492年發現美洲的是哥倫布

補充2:which特殊用法
1,非限定用法,可以主句做先行詞
ex:doctor said she was very sick ,which was not true  醫生說她病得很重,事實不然
ex:some school children take no breakfast ,which is not good for the health 有些學童沒吃早餐,那對健康是很不好的
ex:he
didn't mean any harm, which i realized . 他並沒有惡意,這一點我知道
注意:which只能在主要子句後

補充3:介 [whom|(which)]  [s|to] vi = to vi 介
 ex:i have no money with (which)[ i can|to] buy food 我沒有可以買食物的錢
   = i have no money to buy food with

補充4:先行詞合併關係代名詞
the thing(s) which =what 
all that = what
anything that = what

 

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準關係代名詞

as
1 非限定用法,可以主句做先行詞
ex:oil and water do not mix , as we all know 我們都知道油和水不能混合
=oil and water do not mix , and we all know that
ex:as is offten the case (with him) , he came late for class today 一如往常的,他今天上學又晚到
=he came late for class today , and that is often the case with him

ex:We are tired , as anyone can see.我們累了,這是有目共睹的。

ex:as
is well known , she is a popular singer. 眾所周知,她是個暢銷歌手
ex:as we know , he is nice 誠如我們所知,他人不錯
2 與as,such,the same連用引導子句
句型為:[as|such|the same]...as [v|s v](像...一樣)
ex:He has earned as much money as I have 他賺的錢和我賺的一樣多
ex:don't read such books as are not worth reading 不要讀那些不值得讀的書
ex:this is the same watch as i
lost 這銀錶與我遺失的是同一款式
=this is the same watch that i lost

ps,such...that...(如此...以致...),the same...that...(同一個)

but
做主格,常與否定字連用(no,not,never,little...)
句型為:no ...but v(沒有...不...)=no...that do not v
ex:there is nobody but has his faults 沒有人是零缺點的
ex:there is no rule but has some exceptions 沒有規則是沒有例外的
=there is no rule that doesn't have any exceptions
= every rule has some exceptions 每一些規則都有一些例外
ex:there is
no mother but loves her own children 沒有不愛自己子女的母親(but代替mother做love主格)
=there is no mother that does not love her own children

than
先行詞為比較級時需要用than做關代
句型為:比較級...than v
ex:don't give children more money than is needed 不要給孩子多於他們所需要的錢(than當is主格)
ex:you did more work than i had expected 你做了比我期望還要多的工作
 


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關係副詞
1連接詞+副詞,引導形容詞子句
2種類有where,when,why,how,如下
where
先行詞為場所或case,point,situation,...等
ex:this is the place where i first met my wife 這是我第一次遇見我妻子的地方
ex:here's a map of the town where aunt sally leves 這裡有一張sally阿姨住的城鎮的地圖
ex:we found a restaurant where the food was delicious  我們發現一家餐廳,那兒的食物精美可口
ex:these are the cases where this rule does not apply 在這樣的狀況下這些規則不適用

when
先行詞為時間
ex:sunday is the day when i have no school 禮拜天是我不用上學的那一天
ex:that was the time when dinosaurs lived 那是恐龍存在的時期
ex:the day when we can live in outer space will come 我們能生活在外太空的那天將來臨
=the day will come when we can live in outer space

why
先行詞為理由
ex:the reason why he was absent wasn't clear 他缺席的原因是不明
ex:i really like sweets , that's the reason why my teeth are bad
我真的很喜歡甜食,那就是我為什麼牙齒會不好
how
先行詞通常較不明確,因此都沒有
ex:this is how the riot happened 這就是發生爆動的原因

注意
1
關係副詞若省略先行詞,則引導名詞子句或副詞子句
ex:tuesday is (the day) when the garbage truck comes 星期二是垃圾車來的日子
ex:this is (the reason) why i left early  這是我早出發的理由

2
that當關係副詞可代替where,when,why,也可省略
ex:i don't like the way (that) he talks 我不喜歡他說話的樣子
3
非限定用法
ex:she moved to NewYork , where she opened a boutique 她搬到紐約,並開了一家精品店
ex:i was taking a shower , when the lights went out 那個時候我正在洗澡,就在洗澡時燈就熄滅了

變成關係副詞的用法

結構:先行詞+介+which+形容詞子句=先行詞+關係副詞+子句
1
the place+ [in|at|on]+which= the place+where
ex:this is the place in which i was born 這就是我出生的地方
= this is the place where i was born

2 the time+[in|at|on]+which = the time+
when
ex:i know the time at which he will come 我知道他來的時間
=i know the time when he will com

3 the reason+for+which=the reason+
why
ex:the is the reason for which he cannot come today 這就是他今天不能來的理由
=the is the reason why he cannot come today

4 the way+in+which =
how
ex:tell me the way in which you did it 告訢我你做它的方法
=tell me how you did it


ps:若省略先行詞+關係副詞,則後接名詞子句或副詞子句
先行詞+[關係副詞|介詞+關代],後接形容詞子句



資料來源:各大文法書與網路資料

2008-07-17 16:51:49發表   


 


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