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adverb clause(副詞子句)

副詞子句
用法:修飾動詞,形容詞,副詞
可表達時間,場所,原因,目地結果,條件,讓步等意思

副詞子句可依連接詞來判斷,有以下幾類
引導表時間:as soon as,when,till,until,once,...等
引導表地點:wherever,where
,...等
引導表目地:so that,in order that,so as to,...等
引導表原因:because,now (that),seeing (that),...等
引導表讓步:although,even if,no matter wh-,whether,...等
引導表比較:as...as...,than
,...等


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可引導多種意思

as
一邊...,正當...時
同時性比while,when強
ex:she often hums a tune as she works in the kitchen 她在廚房工作時,常一邊哼著歌
ex:i finished my composition just as the teacher said,'pens down' 當老師說'把筆放下'時,我剛好把作文寫完了
ex:a hush spread over the spectators as the teams took 當隊伍就位時,觀眾們都靜了下來

因為
間接地補充說明原因理由,一般不用於強調句,常置於主要子句後
ex:as i have a car,let's go buy car 我們開車去吧,因為我有車
ex:this is all i have ,please take it ,as this is all i have 這就是我所有的了。請拿走吧,因為這是我僅有的

雖然
句型結構為[adj|adv|n]+as+s+v
ex:young as he is ,john is in possession of a huge mansion 雖然john年輕,卻擁有一棟毫宅
就像,正如
引導狀態時用
ex:do as you think fit 照你認為合適的方法去做
ex:do in rome as the romans do 在羅馬就做個羅馬人(入境隨俗)


since
即然,由於
在主詞之前常做即然解
ex:since you ask,i will tell you 你即然問,我就告訴你
ex:since it was a holiday,i stayed in bed an extra hour 由於那天放假,我就多賴床一個小時

自從
通常用在子句,主句則用現在完成式
ex:it has been two years since i took up tennis 我打網球己經有兩年了

in case
假如
in case anything happens,call me immediately 假如有什麼事發生,馬上打電話給我
免得
put your raincoat on in case in rains 穿上雨衣,免得下雨了
make a note of it in case you should forget it 把它寫下來,免得你忘了



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引導表原因

because 因為
更明確地表現直接的原因和理由,表示因為...所以時,不可和so連用
ex:we were late because there was a lot of traffic on the way 路上交通擁塞,因此我們遲到了
ps:because(=as) s v = because of n=for the sake of ving
ex:i did'nt come yesterday because of illness 我昨天因為生病沒來
now (that),seeing (that) 由於
ex:now (that) you are tired ,you must take a rest 你己經累了,需要休息一下
ex:seeing (that) you don't know it yourself,the report cannot be true連你自己都不知道,這份報告當然不會是真的


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引導表時間

when 當...,那時... ,引導的子句可能表示過去現在未來
ex:when you phoned me last night ,i was taking a shower 當你昨晚打電話給我的時候,我正在洗澡
while 然而,但是,卻,當...時候(當...的時候=as) 用於指某段較長的時間,表在做...的時間內,
常用於現在式
ex:he went out ,while i stayed at home 他出去了,而我留在家
ex:please be quiet while i am talking to you 當我對你們說話時,請不要出聲
ex:strike while the iron is hot 打鐵趁熱
ex:what will you do while i am far away from my hometown?在我遠離家鄉的時候,你要怎麼辦?


once  一但...的話(與after幾乎同義)
ex:once you have made up your mind,you should never think of changing it 一旦你下定決心,就別想改變主意
after
在...之後
ex:your friend arrived after you left 在你離開後,你的朋友就來了
ex:he went out again after he (had) finished his dinner 他吃完晚飯後,又出門去了(因前後關係明確,可用過去式代替)

before 在...之前
ex:i called the airline to confirm my flight reservation a week before i left for canada 我動身前往加拿大的前一個禮拜去電航空公司以確認我預訂的航班
ex:before you make a conclusion,please clarify all the puzzles first.在你下結論之前,請你先澄清所有的迷惑


每次
every time
each time

ex:every time we go on a picnic , it rains 我們每次去野餐就會下雨

直到...
until
till

ex:wait until i call 在我叫你以前,先等一下
ex:she is never satisfied till you grant her the request
句型1 not...until...,(it is not until ...that s v,not until... v s) 直到...才
ex:i did not learn the truth until many days had passed 直到許多天過後我才得知真相
= it was not until many days had passed that i learned the truth
ex:we do not know the value of health until we lose it 我們不知道健康的價值直到我們失去他
=it is not until we lose our health that we know the value of it
=not until we lose our health do we know the value of it
ex:you don't know the importance of health until you lose it 要到生病時,你才曉得健康的重要性
ex:not until we lose the last penny we have,can we realize the importance of fortune
直到我們失去我們所擁有的最後一分錢,我們才能了解財富的重要性

ps:會話常用till,而until用在較正式的情況


一...就...
as soon as
(=the minute=on n/ving)
句型為as soon as s v,s v
ex:as soon as he saw me , he ran away 他一看到我,就立刻跑開了
ex:as soon as we got a ticket for speeding,we all complained about his violation against the traffic rules

當我們因超速而接到罰單的時候,我們都抱怨他交通違規的行為
ex:as soon as the couple realized that they didn't love each other anymore,they broke up 這對情侶了解到彼此不再相愛時,就立刻分手了
ex:a baby deer can stand as soon as it is born 鹿一生下來就會站了

表未來時,as soon as以下的時態要用現在式
ex:let me know your answer as soon as you work it out 你若有答案就要先告訢我
no sooner ... than ...
hardly ... when ...
scarcely ... before ...
句型1為 s had [no sooner|hardly|scarcely] pp...[than|when|before] s ved ...
ex:he had no sooner seen me than he ran away 他一看到我,就立刻跑開了
ex:he had scarcely begun his speech before the power supply was cut off 他一開始演講,就停電了

句型2為 [no sooner|hardly|scarcely] had s pp...[than|when|before] s ved ...
ps:因為否定字擺句首,所以使用倒裝局
ex:no sooner had he seen me than he ran away 他一看到我,就立刻跑開了
ex:no sooner had he arrived here than he fell ill 他一到這裡就病了
ex:hardly had i started when my car got a flat tire 我才一發動車,車輪就扁掉了

the moment

the instant

directly (連接副詞)
immediately (連接副詞)
ex:directly they told him about the accident , he left 他們告訢他那件意外後,他就馬上離開
ex:the moment the earthquake shook the city,he hurried back to his home地震才剛侵襲城鎮,他便急著趕回家
ex:immediately she heard the bell , she turned over the test sheet 當他一聽到鐘聲,就翻開考卷

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引導表地方

where 在...的地方
ex:where there is a well,there is a way 在有意志的地方就有路(有志者,事竟成)
ex:put it back where it was 把他放回原來的地方
ex:it is necessary to plant a tree where it will get the sun我們必須把樹種在能曬到太陽的地方
ex:the car is where you parked it 車子就在你之前停車的地方

wherever(=anywhere that)
ex:you may go wherever you like 你可以去你喜歡的地方

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引導表目地,結果

為了...
in order that 

子句中常用助動詞
ex:he works hard in order that he may pass the exam他努力用功是為了能通過考試
=he works hard in order to pass the exam
so that
可省略so,子句中常用助動詞
ex:i 'll give him a key (so) that he can get in any time 我會給他把鑰匙,以便他能隨時進來
=i'll give him a key to get in any time

ps:若主句和子句的主詞相同也可改用so as to
ex:i get up early [so|in order] that i could catch the first train 我早起為了起到第一班火車
=i get up early so as to catch the first train

ps:有時so that在口語會省略that
ex:please turn off the light so i can sleep 請關燈好讓我睡覺

為了避免...
lest
ex:take care lest you catch cold 小心別感冒了
for fear (that)
fore fear that子句中常用助動詞

ex:i obeyed her for fear (that) she would be angry 我聽她的話,因為我怕她生氣
ex:he
works hard for fear (that) he may fail in the exam 他努力用功,唯恐考試不及格
ps:也可以用in case
ps:句型1 lest s should
英式英語常用
ex:he works hard lest he should fail in the exam 他努力用功,唯恐考試不及格

如此...以致於
so...that...
句型為so [adj|adv] that s v
ex:he is so kind that everybody likes him 他是如此仁慈,所以大家都喜歡他
ex:she sings so beautifully that i can't believe she has had no training 她唱得實在太好,使我無法相信她完全沒有受過訓練
such...that...
句型為
such a (adj) n that s v
ex:he is such a kind man that everybody likes him 他是如此仁慈,所以大家都喜歡他
若子句和主句的主詞相同可改為such a (adj) n as to v
ex:i was such a fool that i complied with his request 我是如此笨以致於竟然回絕他的要求
=i was such a fool as to comply with his request

ps:
在單數形時,可將such...that用so...that表現,但要改成so adj a n
ex:she got so nice a present that she could hardly get to sleep她收到一份很好的禮物,以致興奮得睡不著

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引導表條件

假如
if
ex:if they don't get here soon,we will leave without them 假如他們無法很快趕到這裡,我們就先出發不等他們

只要是...
如果...
suppose
supposing
provided (that)

as long as
so long as

ex:suppose you are elected , what will you do for your constituents假如你當選了,你會為選民做什麼
ex:you could buy on,provided you had the money 只要你有錢,你就可以買一個
ex:any book will do as long as it is interesting 只要是有趣的書都可以
ex:as long as there were books and stationary , he never felt lonely 只要有書和文具,他絕不感到寂漠
ex:you will be admitted so long as you arrive before 10 pm只要你在晚上10前到達,就會被接受


除非
unless
表示除非...否則時不可和or連用
ex:unless he prepares well,he will fail the exam 除非他準備充份,否則就會考不及格
ex:i won't phone you unless something unforseen happens 除非有什麼不尋常的事發生,不然我不會打給你


ps:in case of n 假如

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引導表讓步

雖然...但是
though
although

ex:though it may seem odd,i like raw beef 雖然這顯得很奇怪,但我很喜歡生牛肉
ex:although stories about aliens have never been officially confirmed,their existence has been widely speculated upon
雖然有關外星人的報導一直未獲官方證實過,但是他們的存在卻也一直引起廣泛的臆測

句型 [(even) though |although] s v [adj|adv|a n],s v=[adj|adv|n] as s v ,s v
ex:although he is a teacher,he can't know everything 雖然他是個老師,但他不能知道每一件事
= teacher as he is ,he can't know everything (n放句首不可加冠詞)
ex:(even) though she is smart , she is not diligent enough 雖然她很聰明,但她不夠努力
smart as she is ,she is not diligent enough

(al)though不可和but連用,但可互用
ex:though she is rich,she is cruel=she is rich,but she is cruel 雖然她有錢,但是她很殘忍

即使
even [if|though]
ex:even if you don't like chesse cake , try a piece of this 即使你不喜歡乳酪蛋糕,還是嚐一片吧


雖然...但是
in spite of
despite

句型
[in spite of|despite] [n|ving] ,s v
ex: he went fishing in spite of rain 儘管下著雨,他仍出去釣魚
ex:in spite of her laziness ,she can handle it as a piece of cake 儘管她很懶惰,但她還是可以很輕鬆的處理這件事
ex:despite economic depression,our country can still stand matchless 儘管經濟蕭條,我們國家仍然可以鶴立雞群


無論...
no matter
句型 no matter+疑問詞 s v
ex:no matter who says so ,it is not true 不管是誰這麼說,它都不是真的
ex:no matter when i saw her,she was smiling 無論何時我見到她,她總是微笑
ex:no matter which wins ,it isn't important for me 不管那邊獲勝,我都不在乎
ex:no matter what they said to him,joe would not change his mind 不管他們對joe說什麼,他都不會改變心意的
ex:no matter where you are,remember that we will be thinking of you 不管你在那裡,記得我們都會想念你的
ex:no matter how you do it ,the result is the same 不管你怎麼做,結果都是相同的

句型 no matter how [adj|adv] + s v
ex:no matter how hard you try , you won't succeed 無論你多努力,你都不會成功
ex:no matter how hard it may be,i must try 無論事情有多難,我一定要試

注意:no matter+疑問詞=用在副詞子句的'疑問詞+ever'
複合關係代名詞
whoever用在副詞子句時=no matter who
whichever用在副詞子句時=no matter which
whatever用在副詞子句時=no matter what
複合關係副詞
wherever用在副詞子句時=no matter where
whenever用在副詞子句時=no matter when
however用在副詞子句時=no matter how

無論a或b
whether
ex:whether he wins or lose at the next election , i'll suport him to the very end 無論下次選舉輸贏,我都將支持他到底
ps:whether在名詞子句中解釋成"是否"


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引導表比較,比例

和..一樣
as ... as ...
句型 as [adj|adv] as
ex:the days are almost as long as the nights now 現在白天和夜晚幾乎一樣長
ex:i am usually as busy as i am now  我通常像我現在一樣忙
ex:you must read as many books as you can possible 你必須儘可能的多讀書
ex:i'm three times as rich as you are 我比你富有三倍
 

比...更

than
ex:he is much more intelligent than bill 他比bill聰明多了
ex:the weather was worse than we had expected 天氣比我們預期的更糟


隨著
according as
ex:you think differently according as you are young or old 人的想法會隨著年輕或年老而改變

the 比較級,the 比較級

ex:the older you get,the less you will want to eat meat 年紀愈大,愈不想吃肉

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其他

在...範圍或程度內
as far as
ex:as far as the eye can see,there stretches the desert 眼前是一片一望無際的沙漠
句型 as far as N beV concerned 以n的立場來看
ex:as far as i'm concered , you can stay out all night 就我來看,你可以在外會過夜 
ex:as far as geography is concerned,the more you know about it,the more you know about our earth
就以地理學而論,你知道的越多,你對地球了解就越廣


like... 正如
ex:we'll do it like you do 我們會像你一樣那麼做的
as if,as though 好像
ex:he lookded as if he hadn't slept for a week 他看起來像是一整個星期都沒睡覺似的
ex:he went on eating as though nothing had happened 他像是什麼都沒發生似地繼續吃東西

as...so 正如...一樣
ex:as men sow , so will they reap 一分耕耘,一分收獲
ex:as the lion is the king of beasts , so the eagle is the king of birds 正如獅子是萬獸之王,而老鷹是百禽之王


except that 除了...之外
ex:this table will do except that it is too expensive 這桌子除了價格太高外,其餘都很好
but 除了...
ex:they are all wrong but he 除了他之外,他們全錯了

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ps:關係副詞when,where,why,how
省略先行詞,依照句中位置,可引導副詞子句與名詞子句



資料來源:各大文法書與網路資料

2008-07-17 16:52:15發表   


 


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