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noun clause(名詞子句)

名詞子句
用途:做主詞,受詞,補語,同位語
引導名詞子句的連接詞有:
 that
   whether,if
 疑問詞:what,which,who,when,where,why,how
 關係代名詞/形容詞:what
 複合關係代名詞:whoever,whomever,whosever,whichever,whatever
 複合關係形容詞:whatever,whichever

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做主詞
做主詞時後接單v
ex:that the earth is round is true 地球圓的是真實的
that放句首較少見,通常是用it做虛主詞放句首
ex:
it is true that bill passed the entrance exam 比爾通過考試是真的
=that bill passed the entrance exam is true
ex:it is beyond any doubt that the world's climate is getting hotter 整個全球氣候在上升溫是無庸致疑的
=that the wordls climate is getting hotter is beyond any doubt
ex:it surprises me that he denies the story 他否認那件事讓我很驚訝

做補語

ex:my suggestion is that we dine out this evening 我提議今晚出去吃飯
若在口語省略that,須在原處加逗點
ex:the truth is , i have never seen you before 事實上,我以前從未見過你
做受詞

ex:many people believe that beings from outer space have visited us for centuries 很多人相信幾世紀來都有外太空的生物來探訪我們

同位語子句(名詞後在用一個名詞做解釋)
可接同位語子句的名詞,常用的有fact,truth,fear,belief,idea,reason,hope,result,news,thought,doubt,discovery...
that引導名詞子句作同位語時格式通常為:the n that s v
ex:the fact that the earth is round is true 地球是圓的事實是真的
ex:the fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody 事實上他什麼都沒有說,這讓每個人都深感震驚
ex:i'll see to it that the doors are all fastened  我會留意門是否會部鎖上
ex:i took it for granted that they would marry 我認為他們結婚是理所當然的

連接副詞引導同位語子句(因when,where,how,why前無時間,地點,如何,原因的字)
ex:i have no idea when she will be back 我不知道他什麼時候回來
ex:that arose the question where we should go 那引出了我們該去那兒的問題
ex:he has solved the question where he is ill 他己找出了他為何生病的原因
ex:you have no idea how worried i was 你不知道我是多麼著急

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that接受詞的重點
動詞後接兩個子句做受詞時,第二個子句的that不可省略
ex:he said (that) he would surely come but that he might be ten or twenty minutes late 他說他確定過來但可能晚10或12分
重點1:可省略that的動詞
以下動詞可省略that接子句當受詞
say,explain,hope,wish,know,think,believe,don't doubt...
ex:i think (that) i'll try 我想試試看
ex:it is hard for me to believe that the dream has come true 要我相信夢己成真很困難
重點2:不接that的動詞
以下動詞不可接that子句當受詞
attempt嘗試,care想要,decline拒絕,hate,like,offer,refuse拒纘,try,want
重點3:要受詞
以下動詞需接代名詞當受詞才可接that子句當受詞
assure保證,convince使信服,inform通知,instruct指示,persuade說服,remind提醒,tell告訢
ex:he reminded me that i had promised to help him 我承認過要幫助他
ex:I told him that he should see a doctor 我告訢他應該去看醫生
重點4:it虛受詞

若是以下動詞可使用it虛受詞
find,make,consider,think,believe
句型結構為s v it + oc + [that子句|to v|ving]
ex:we consider that it is important to learn to make use of a dictionary 我們認為學習使用字典是重要的
=we consider it important to learn to make use of a dictionary
ex:many people find it strange that americans move from place to place so often 很多人發現美國人經常在搬家滿奇怪的
ex:i thought it rather odd that he hadn't come to the party which he had been looking forward to so much 我認為他沒來參加他之前期待的宴會是相當奇怪的
ex:i think it probable that he is dead 我想他可能死了

重點5:表提議必要的句型

表緊急,必要,提議,要求的動詞或形容詞時,名詞子句結構為:that s+(should)+原形動詞
ps:that不可省略
常用動詞有:advise,order,suggest,require,request,urge,insist,...等
常用形容詞有:essential,necessary,urgent,...等
ex:he suggested that we (should) ask a lawyer 他建議我們請一位律師
ex:it is essential that this (should) be done at once 這事必須立刻辨理

重點6:當介係詞的受詞

通常用在'除了...之外'的解釋,如except,save,but,besides,beyond,in等
ex:everything was ok except that it was blowing hard 除了風很強外,其他都沒問題
ex:i don't deny but that they still insist on their opinions  我不否認他們仍然還堅持他們的意見
ex:i'm lucky in that i have three brothers 我很幸運我有三個兄弟

重點7:當形容詞的受詞
僅限部分形容詞
ex:he is anxious that i will finish the work immediately 他想要我立刻完成工作
ex:we were amazed that we saw you in town 我們很訝異我們在鎮上看到你
=we were amazed at seeing you in town

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if/whether
表是否...時,可用if,whether,名詞子句是肯定句結構為:[if|whether]+s+v
ex:it is not certain whether he will come at all 他會不會來這件事,是完全不確定的

ex:whether the report is true is questionable 這個報告是否是真的是值得懷疑的
=it is questionable whether the report is true

當補語
ex:the point is whether people will read these technical books 問題在於是否有人會看這些專門書藉
當受詞
ex:he asked whether/if the postman had brought something for him 他問郵差是否有帶東西給他
ex:he asked us whether/if we wanted to stay here or not 她問我們是否想要待在這裡
ex:i don't care whether your car will break down or not 我不介意你的車是否會故障
當介詞的受詞
ex:it depends on whether they will appear 這事決定於他們是否會出現
同位語子句
ex:the question whether we have time discuss still remains 我們是否有時間討論仍然存在的問題
if只能當動詞後的受詞,不可直接加or not,動詞常用ask,tell,doubt,wonder納悶,don't know
ex:i asked him if he would go 我問他是否會去
ex:do you know if the plane is going to be late 你知道飛機是否會誤點嗎?

子句重覆部份可省略
s v whether + s v = s v whether + to v
ex:i don't decide whether to go or not 我不能決定我是否要去
=i don't decide whether i will go or not

ps:or not可放句尾或句首
ex:everyone wants to know whether they will get a raise or not 每個人都想知道他們是否能加薪
=everyone wants to know whether or not they will get a raise

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疑問詞當連接詞,或間接問句
常使用這疑問詞what,which,who,when,where,why,how
,而且子句永遠為肯定句
主要有兩種擺法
1.疑問詞不當主詞的名詞子句:疑問詞+s+v
 what
  ex:john inquired as to what the problem was 約翰問了有關於問題是什麼
  ex:i can't remember what i have done with my glasses我不記得把眼鏡擺那兒去了
 why ex:I wonder why he is absent 
 where ex:I know where he lives
 when ex:I know when he left
 who ex:Tell me who that girl is
 whose
  ex:Tell me whose pen this is 
  ex:do you know whose book this is ? 你知道這是誰的書嗎? (whose book做補語)
2.疑問詞當主詞的名詞子句:疑問詞+v
 who
  ex:Tell me who is in the office   = Tell me, who is in the office?
  ex:I don't know who came to here
 
what ex:Tell me what happened 
 which ex:which team will win the match is still unknown 哪一隊能贏現在還不知道 (which team做主詞)
 whose ex:i wonder whose car was the first to arrive ?我在想,誰的車是最先到的呢(whose car做主詞)
ps:
若主要子句以疑問句字序出現要加問號
ex:do you know where he lives? 你知道他住在那裡嗎?
ex:can you tell me when he left? 你能告訢我他何時離開的嗎

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關係代名詞what(己含先行詞),可引導名詞子句
可解釋為the thing (s) which(所...的事或物),that which(所有...的),all that,anything that
ex:what he said gave me great confidence 他所說的話給了我很大的信心 (做主詞)
ex:his parents made him what they wanted him to be 他的父母把他塑造成他們想要的樣子
ex:do you understand what i say 你了解我說的話嗎?(做受詞)
ex:what he said was not relative to the topic 他的話與主題無關 (做主詞)

常用句型
[what|all (that)] 人 have to do is 原v (某人只要做...就行了)
ex:what you have to do is study hard 你只要用功就行了
a is to b what c is to d (a之於b猶如c之於d)
ex:air is to us what water is to fish 空氣對於我們猶如水之於魚
慣用語
what one is 一個人的為人 , what one has 一個人的財富 , what is called 所謂
what is more 而且 , what is better 更好的事 , what is worse更糟的事
ex:he is what is called a walking dictionary 他是所謂的活字典

 
關係形容詞
1關係詞+形容詞  
2種類有以下
what+n
可解釋為all the n that,所...的
ex:i gave the child what little money i had then 我給這小孩全部我那時擁有的零錢
=i gave the child all the little money that i had then
ex:nancy waited with what patience she could command nancy用所有他能克制的耐心在等待
=nancy waited with all the patience that she could command
ex:give me what paper you don't use 把你所有不用的紙張給我
ex:i'll give you what money i have with me now 我會把現在身上的錢都給你

which+n
ex:The doctor told him to give up smoking, which advice he took.醫生囑他戒煙,他接受了這一忠告。
ex:we may miss the train , in which case we'll be late for the appointment 我們可能會錯過火車,如此一來我們的約會將遲到
ex:for ten days , in which time he kept indoors ,nobody visited him 有十天之久,在這段期間他一直待在家,沒人來走訪

ps:關係形容詞=當形容詞用的關代(關代+名詞)
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複合關係代名詞
關係代名詞+ever
,有引導名詞子句的用法,與引導副詞子句的用法
種類有以下
whoever
用在引導名詞子句時=anyone who 不管...的人是誰
ex:give it to whoever wants it 把那個給任何要它的人
ex:whoever is tired may take a break 無論誰累了都可以休息一下

whomever
用在引導名詞子句時=anyone whom 不管...的人是誰
ex:give it to whomever you like 把那個給任何你所喜歡的人
whosever
用在引導名詞子句時=anyone whose 不管...的人是誰
ex:we need whosever english is fluent 我們需要任何英文流利的人
whichever
用在引導名詞子句時=any one that 那一個都...
ex:you may choose whichever you like 你喜歡那一個你就挑選那一個
whatever
在引導名詞子句時=anything that 凡事...都... (what的強調形)
ex:whatever you do is important to me 無論你做什麼對我都很重要
ex:you may eat whatever you like.everything is on the house here 你可以隨便吃,這裡的東西全都是主人請客
ex:you may do whatever you like 凡你喜歡做的就去做

複合關係副詞
關係副詞+ever
,可引導名詞子句或副詞子句
種類有以下
whenever
用在引導名詞子句時=at any time when
whorever
用在引導名詞子句時=at any place where



複合關係形容詞whatever,whichever
whatever在引導名詞子句時=any...that 不管...也
ex:whatever excuse he makes will not be believed 不管他有什麼藉口,都不會被相信
whichever在引導名詞子句時=不管...那一個
ex:i think you will enjoy whichever one you choose 不管你選哪一個,我想你都會很開心的
ps:複合關係形容詞=當形容詞用的複合關代

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關係副詞省略先行詞時,依照句中位置,可引導名詞子句與副詞子句
when省略先行詞the time
ex:spring is when the garden is most beautiful 春天是花園最美的時候

where省略先行詞the place
ex:the library is where i spend most of my time 圖書館是我花最多時間待著的地方
why省略先行詞the reason,有時why也會用that代替
ex:i can't understand why you did such a thing 我不明白你為何做這種事
單用how,有時how也會用that代替
ex:this is how the farmers' crops were saved 農民的穀物就這麼被救活了
ps:how不可與the way一起出現

 

 

 

 

資料來源:各大文法書與網路資料


2008-07-17 16:52:40發表   


 


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