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a preposition(介詞)

功能
1. 介詞後面主要接名詞但也可接:
介詞 ex: the rat ran out from behind the kitchen 這隻老鼠從廚房後面跑出來
pp ex:don't take it for granted 不要視它為理所當然
adj ex:now the situation is going from bad to worse 現在情況越來越糟了
adv ex:my boss returned from abroad last week 我的老闆上個禮拜從國外回來了
子句或片語 ex:his success depends on how he puts all these projects into practice 他的成功在於他如何把所有的計畫付諸實行
n ex:i am afraid of snakes 我怕蛇
ving ex:i am fond of seeing the movies 我喜歡看電影

2. 介詞+受詞=介詞片語,可作n,adj,adv
ex:from eight go twelve is my busiest time 從8點到12點是我最忙的時間(做名詞)
ex:the girl with long hair is my sister 長頭髮的女孩是我的妹妹(做形容詞)
ex:the dog is lying on the floor 狗兒躺在地板上(做副詞)


3.介詞分2類:
第1類是介副詞:受詞是n或pron都可在v與prep之間,則稱此prep為介副詞,如:on,up,off,out,away...
n可在介副詞前後(v+n+介副詞=v+介副詞+n)
ex:put your hat on = put on your hat 載上你的帽子
ex:he took off his coat = he took his coat off他脱掉他的外套

注意:pron只能在v與介副詞中間(v+pron+介副詞)
ex:mark turned it on 馬克把它打開
ex:please take it off

常用片語有:look up(查閱),give up,pick up(撿起),put on(穿上),take off(脱掉),turn on,turn off,find out(發現),take away(拖走)...
第2類是一般的介詞:受詞不論是n或pron只能放在prep後(v+介+受詞),如:in,of,at,about...
ex:look at the dog 看著這隻狗
ex:look at it 看著他

常用片語有:run out of(用完),look at ,listen to,think about(想,考慮),talk about(談論),care about(關心)...
ps:介詞+名詞=動作在進行 ex:at work=working

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基本的介詞

表移動的prep
1 . up向上 ex:i ran up the hill 我跑上山
2 . down向下 ex:the ship sailed down the river 船向下游行駛
其他還有有 along沿著 , through穿過 , across橫過越過 , out of從...出來 , into進入 , to到 , from從
ex:we walked along the street 我們沿著街走
ex:the boy went across the street 這男孩越過馬路
ex:he came out of the room 他從房間裡出來
ex:the train went through a tunnel 火車穿過山洞


表地點的prep
1 . in在(城市,國家等大地方),在...之內
ex:he lives in taipei他住在台北
2 . at在(村,等小地方)
ex:he lives at a small village 他住在一小鄉村
其他有 on在..表面上 , by/beside在...旁 , before在...前面/behind在...之後
ex:he walked before me 他走在我之前
ex:his house is by the sea 他的房子在海邊
ex:he sat beside me 他坐在我旁邊

over在...正上方/under在...正下方 , above在...之上/below在...之下
ex:there is a bridge over the river 河上有一座橋
ex:the sun has just sunk below the horizon 太陽剛沈沒在地平線上

around圍繞/between在...之間/among在...之間(三者以上)
ex:all sat around the table 所有人圍繞著桌子坐
ex:this artist decided to build a house among the trees 這位藝術家決定在樹林中建造一間房子
within在...之內,inside在...裡面(只用在具體事物)
ex:within the room 在房間內,within his job description在他的工作範圍內
ex:inside the city在城裡

ps:on the maps在地圖上 in the newspapers在報紙上,succed in ving成功於

表時間的prep
1 . through從頭到尾,持續到,從...直到
ex:he worked hard through the summer 他在夏天中從頭到尾一直努力用功
2 . till直到...止(表繼續)(=until)
ex:you must be waiting for him till five o'clock 你必須等他等到五點
3 . by在...以前(表期限)
ex:you must finish reading the book by five o'clock 你必須在五點以前讀完這本書
ex:by the time we get here,they'll have finished the work 等我們到這裡時,他們會己經把工作做完

4 . at(用在時間的一點,像是時刻,正午,夜半,何時,年紀)
ex:at seven七點,at noon在中午,at night在晚上,at present目前
5 . on(用在一天或特定時間,像是日期,星期)
ex:on sunday在星期日,on the first of january在一月一日
6 . in(表較長的時間,用於年,月,季,世紀,上下午,夜晚)
ex:in may在五月,in spring在春天,in the 21st century在21世紀
ps:用於上午,下午,早晨較為特別,也是用in 
ex:in the morning在早晨,
其他還有 from,since,for,during,after,before,between
ex:i had too much coffee during the meeting 我在會議當中喝太多咖啡了
ex:sit still during the meal 吃飯時要坐好
ex:i started before sunrise and arrived after sunset我在日出之前出發,而日落後到達

ps:the day before yesterday(前天), the day after tomorrow(後天), in one's 複數(在..幾歲), at the age of 單數(在..幾歲)
at about 時間(大約在...點)

ps
先地點在時間,先小範圍在大範圍
ex:he moved to Taiwan in 2001
ex:I arrived the airport at six-thirty in the morning 

 

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常用的介詞

表分離,區別,奪取的prep
1 . from(常和,tell,stop,keep,prevent阻止...連用)
ex:the rain prevented me from coming on time這場雨使我無法準時到達
ex:it is hard to tell oranges from tangerines 要分辨橘子和柳橙之間的差異是困難的

2 . of(常和rob,relieve減輕,deprive奪取,cure糾正...連用)
ex:they robbed him of his money 他們搶了他的錢
ex:illness deprived him of his happiness 疾病奪去了他的幸福


表反對,除外的介詞
1 . but,except除外
ex:we go to school every day but(except) sunday 除了星期日外,我們每天都要上學
2 . against反對,防備
ex:are you against my plan?你反對我的計畫嗎
ex:we should save money against a rainy day 我們應該存錢以未雨綢繆


表附帶狀況的prep
with+(代)名詞+補語
ex:don't speak with your mouth full of food 滿嘴食物的時候不可以說話
ex:she sat there with her eyes closed 她閉著眼睛坐在那裡

表起源的prep
from(常和come,result發生,derive起源或取得...連用)
ex:this word is derived from the latin 這個字起源於拉丁文

表關於,涉及的prep
1.of關於(表存在)
ex:he spoke of this book the other day 他前些天提到這本書
2.about關於(表詳細情況)
ex:he talked about his family 他談到他的家人
3.on關於,論及(用在論文,演講,學術主題)
ex:he has writen a lot of books on the history of china 他寫了很多有關中國歷史的書
4.in在..方面
ex:the country is rich in natural resources 這個國家富有天然資源
ps:in 衣服=be dressed in 衣服(穿著...衣服)

表標準或單位的prep
1 . at用(表程度,單價)
ex:he drove at a speed of 60 miles an hour 他以每小時60英里的速度行駛
ex:he has sold his house at a high price 他以高價出售他的房子

2 . for用(表總價)
ex:he bought it for ten dollars 他用十塊錢買下它
3 . by以...計(度量單位)
ex:i rent the house by the month 我以月計租用這房子

表比較的prep
1 . to比,比較
ex:we won the game by 5 to 3 我們以5比3嬴得這場比賽
ex:i prefer orangess to apples 我比較喜歡柳丁而不喜歡蘋果

2 . with比較或對照(常和compare,contrast對照,連用)
ex:he compared his camera with mine 他將他的相機與我的比較
ex:in this book the writer contrasts good with evil 作者在本書中把善與惡作了對比

3 . by(比較的差額)
ex:he is taller than i by two inches 他高我兩英吋
ps:a be compared to b(a被比喻做b)

表結果的prep
1 . to變成(由某動作產生),令人...(to one's 感情名詞)
ex:to my surprise , he won the prize 令我驚訝的是,他得了獎
ex:the glass was broken to pieces 玻璃杯被打成碎片了

2 . into變成(由某狀態變為某狀態,常和turn,change,grow連用)
ex:heat changes water into steam 熱使水變為蒸氣
ex:turn this passage into chinese 把這節翻成中文


表目地的prep
1 . for為了(後接名詞)
ex:let's go for a walk 我們去散步吧
ex:for a bright futare,you should work hard 為了光明的前途,你應努力才是

2 . after追求(常和seek,run,search連用)
ex:he is seeking after wealth and power 他在追求財富和權勢
ex:the policeman ran after a thief 警察追小偷

3 . on為了(常接business,tour旅行,journey旅行,trip,picnic)
ex:my father went to taipei on business 我父親因事前往台北
ex:we will go on a picnic tomorrow 明天我們要去郊遊


表原因的prep
1 . from因為(外在原因)
ex:he was ill from overeating 他因吃過多而生病
ex:he died from the wound 他因傷而致死

2 . of因為(內在原因)
ex:his father died of cancer 他父親死於癌症
ex:you should be ashamed of such conduct 這種行為你應以為恥

3 . at因為(常和感情相關動詞,形容詞連用)
ex:i was surprised at the news 我對這項消息大吃一驚
ex:he got angry at her words 他因她所說的話而生氣

4 . for因為(常和famous,noted有名的,blame責備,punish處罰,reward獎賞...等連用)
ex:he was punished for theft 他因偷竊而受處罰
ex:he was punished for being late 他因遲到而受罰
ex:taiwan is famous for its beautiful scenery 台灣因風景而聞名


表材料的prep
1 . of用(用的材料與成品性質不變)
ex: the desk is made of wood 這桌子是由木材製成的
2 . from用(用的材料和成品性質己變)
ex:wine is made from grapes 酒是用葡萄製造的
3 . in用(常和write,speak,answer連用)
ex:you must write letters in ink 你必須用墨水寫信
ex:can you answer it in english? 你會用英語回答嗎


表行為或手段的prep
1 . by藉以,經,由(接交通工具,手段方法,也常用在被動式表行為者)
ex:he reads by lamplight 他藉燈光看書
ex:he goes to work by bus.
ps:by telephone(用電話)=on the telephone
ps:by chance偶然地,by mistake不小心,by hand手工製,by check用支票,by credit card用信用卡
2 . with用(後接工具或身體部位)
ex:he shot the bird with a gun 他用槍射鳥
ex:he pointed to a spot on the map with his finger 

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其他補充
between 二者之間
ex:just between you and me 請勿洩密
ex:i don't have any choices between those two ways 我在這兩種方法之間沒有任何選擇

among 三者之間
ex:among the proposals,that one attracts me most 在所給的企畫書中,那是最吸引我的
ex:this lady is the best among those contemporary writers 這位女士是那些當代作家中最優秀的一位

at least 至少
ex:she should at least apologize to me 她至少應該向我道個謙
at best 充其量
ex:the teacher is ,at best ,a money-making machine 這位老師充其量只是一個賺錢的機器
at most 至多,最多,充其量
ex:the amusement park is ,at most,a place of wasting time and money遊樂場最多也不過是個浪費時間和錢的地方



參考資料:各大英文書藉與網路

2008-07-17 17:01:42發表   


 


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