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subjunctive(假設語氣)

說明:想表達,與事實不符假定,想像,願望,需用假設語氣

假設語氣中的主要與條件子句動詞皆為過去式
主要子句:過去助動詞+[原v|have+pp]
1通常用過去式助動詞,如would(will),should(shall),could(can),might(may),但條件子句出現should則例外
2過去助動詞+原v:表現在或未來相反
3過去助動詞+have+pp:表與過去相反(條件子句與過去事實相反,but+[for+名詞|that+(s+過去式動詞)],句型,才會出現)
條件子句:if s [were|had+pp|[were+to|should]+原v]
1動詞通常不依時態與人產生變化,[were|ved]=現在,[were+to|should]+原v=未來,had+pp=過去
2若省略if,則需將動詞移到主詞前
ps:若動詞有現在或未來時態,則極可能不是假設語氣,此時條件子句和主要子句應該都是現在時態動詞

1.條件子句與現在事實相反假設
條件子句(if+s+皆用過去式v,beV皆為were),主要子句(s+過去式助動詞+原v)
 ex:if I were you, I would take some medicine 假如我是你,我就會去吃藥    
 ex:if i were a bird,i could fly 假如我是一隻鳥,我就能飛

 條件子句省略if=were i a bird,i could fly
 ex:if this plan could be carried out,we could earn more than one million dollars 假如這個計劃能被執行,我們可以賺到超過一百萬元
 
ex:if i satyed in tokyo , i could shake hands with this super star 假如我留在東京,我就可以和這位超級巨星握手了
 
ex:if i could become young again,i would travel all over the world 假使我能再年輕一次,我將去環遊世界
2.條件子句與過去事實相反假設
條件子句(if+s+had+pp),主要子句(s+過去式助動詞+have+pp)
ex:if he had studied hard,he could have won the scholarship 假如他當時用功,他可能己經得了獎學金
 條件子句省略if=had he studied hard,he could have won the scholarship
 
ex:if i had known the fact,i would have taken action right away 如果我當時知道真相的話,我會馬上採取行動
條件子句(if+s+had+pp),主要子句(s+過去式助動詞+原v+現在時間副詞),結果和現在有關,時間副詞有now,today,this week,this time...
 ex:if i had studied hard before,i would be a college student now 假如我從前用功讀書,我現在就是大學生了
 
ex:if you had taken my advice,you would not be in trouble today 假如你當時有聽我的勸告,你今天就不會有麻煩了
 
ps:條件子句省略if同上
3.條件子句與未來事實相反假設
條件子句(if+s+皆用were to+原v),主要子句(s+過去式助動詞+原v),用在絕不可能的假設,可能性趨近於0%
 ex:if the sun were to rise in the west,i would not change my mind 即使太陽從西邊出來,我也不會改變我的心意
 
ex:if i were to live my life again , i would pay more attention to my family 使使我再過一次人生,我將付出更大的注意力於我的家庭
 條件子句省略if=were the sun to rise in the west
條件子句(if+s+should+原v),主要子句(s+[過去式助動詞|助動詞]+原v),可能極小的假設,should解釋萬一
 ex:if i should fail,i will do it again 萬一我失敗,我會再做一次
 修件子句省略if=should i fail
條件子句(if+s+現在v),主要子句(s+助動詞+原v)條件子句可能性大於50%
 
ex:if it rains tomorrow , i will not go out for camping 假如明天下雨的話,我就不會外出去露營
ps:條件子句表事實
 
ex:if a little insects gets onto my skin,i get allergy 假使有虫跑到我的皮膚上,那我就會過敏

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若無假設法,but+[for|that]
ps:but for=without=if it were not for(表現在用)=if it had not been for(表過去用)
but+[for+名詞|that+(s+現在動詞)],s+過去式助動詞+原v,與現在事實相反
ex:but for your help,he would fail 若無你的幫助,他會失敗的
=without your help,he would fail
=if it were not for your help,he would fail
=but that you help him,he would fail
ex:if it were not for her father's financial aid,she would still be bankrupt now若不是她父親現在的經濟資助,她就會破產了
but+[for+名詞|that+(s+過去式動詞)],s+過去式助動詞+have+pp,與過去事實相反
=if it had not been for your help,he would have failed
=but that you helped him ,he would have failed
ex:if it had not been for email,i would never have thought of writing to my friend in france

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後接[were|ved|had pp|should 原v]的句型

1,但願假設法(表不可能實現的願望),i wish=if only(真希望...)=would that(要是...就好了)
i wish (that) [were|過去式v] 現在不能實現的願望
ex:i wish i were rich 但願我是個富翁
i wish (that) [had+pp] 過去不能實現的願望
ex:i wish i had been in hongkong last year 但願我去年在香港

2,好像假設法(事實上不是)
s+v as+[if|though] s+[were|過去式v] 與現在事實相反
ex:he talks as if he were a doctor 他的談吐好像他是個醫生
s+v as+[if|though] s+[had+pp] 與過去事實相反
ex:he talks as if he had known the news yesterday 他說話好像他昨天己知道這個消息
ex:she acted as if she had known the truth 她的行為就好像她己經知道了事實
ps:as it were(所謂的,好比是)
ex:she is,as it were,a walking dictionary 她可謂是一部活字典
ex:he is,as it were,a big name in the field of business 他是所謂商業界中的知名人物

3,該是...的時候假設法
it is [time|about time|high time] (that) s+[過去式v|should+原v]
ex:it is time (that) we went home 該是我們回家的時候
=it is time (that) we should go home
=it is time for us to go home 特殊用法

4,居然竟然之意
it is adj that s should [原v|be+pp]
adj有a pity(可惜之事),strange(令人驚訝的),surprising,wonderful(驚人的),nowonder(難怪)
ex:it is a pity that he should come late 真可惜,他竟然來晚了

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後接(should) [原v|be pp]的句型,若是否定則後接(should) not+[原v|be pp]
1,要求建議假設法
s v that s (should) [原v|be+pp],動詞可分:
建議:suggest,move,propose,recommend
要求:ask,demand,require,request
堅持:insist,urge(力勸),maintain(主張)
命令:order,command
ex:the doctor insited that he (should) stop smoking 醫生堅持要他戒煙
ex:i move
that the meeting (should) be postponed 我提議這會議應延期
ex: the manager asked that we (should) wait on the guests well 經理要我們好好地侍候這些來賓
ex: the nurse recommended that i (should) take the vitamin capsule daily 這個護士推薦我每日服用一顆維他命膠囊
ex: the general ordered that the soldier (should) keep an eye on the patient 這位將軍命令這位士兵要注意這個病人
ex: i suggested that we (should) take the shortcut 我建議我們應走捷徑
ex:the teacher demanded that the whole class (should) finish it within a month 老師要求全班在一個月內完成它

2,當然必要形容詞假設法
it is adj that s(should) [原v|be+pp]
adj有necessary(必須的),essential(必要的),natural(理所當然的),important,urgent(急迫的),vital(重要的)
ex:it is essential that this (should) be done at once 這事必須立刻辨理

2008-07-30 13:30:43發表   


 


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