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需注意和易混淆的動詞

需注意的常用動詞
have 主要是'擁有'與'吃喝'的意思,但依句子內容要有不同解釋
  ex:may i have this? 我可以拿這個嗎? 
  ex:let me have a look at that book 請讓我看一看那本書
  ex:i'll have a bath 我要洗澡
  ex:he has cold 他著涼了
get 主要是'得到'的意思
  ex:he got some money 他得到一些錢
  ex:when did you get that hat?你何時買了那頂帽子(有得到含意)
  ex:she got sick 她生病了(有得到含意)
  也有'到達','變成'的意思
  ex:the train got to taipei at 5:45 這班火車於5:45到達高雄(做到達解釋)
  ex:it is getting warmer 天氣漸漸熱了(有變成的含意)
  ex:you will get used to it soon 你不久會變得習慣了(有變成的含意)
do 包含'做'及'處理'有關的含意,依句子需用不同的解釋
  ex:would you do the potatoes? 請你 [削皮或洗..等處理] 馬鈴薯好嗎?
  ex:he does the garden every saturday他每星期六[整理或打掃...等處理]花園
  ex:the spaceship has already done two million miles 太空船己[做了行進或飛行...等]了2百萬哩了
  ex:he is doing very well at school 他在學校的[做了表現或行為...等]非常好
  ex:I did well on my exams yesterday 我昨天考試考的不錯
  也可解釋為'適合'或'可以'
  ex:either will do 兩者都可以
  ex:will this book do 這本書可以嗎
take 主要是'拿'的含意
  ex:who has taken my pen? 誰拿了我的筆
  ex:he took the boy's hand 他握住這男孩的手(有拿的含意)
  ex:i take your advice 我接受你的勸告(有拿取勸告的含意)
  ex:i take breakfast at seven 我在七點鐘吃早餐(有拿走早餐的含意)
  ex:it take me two hours to finish the work 我費了兩個小時完成這項工作(有被拿了2個小時的含意)
  ex:please take a seat 請坐下(有拿一個坐位的含意)
  ex:i took a picture of her 我拍了一張她的照片(有拿到她的圖片含意)
  也有'以為','乘坐','引導'的意思
  ex:we took him to be a foreigner 我們以為他是外國人
  ex:i'll take a bus 我將乘公共汽車
  ex:he took john upstair 他帶john到樓上
keep 有'保留'與'繼續'的含意
  ex:you may keep the change 你可以不用找錢(把錢保留)
  ex:meat doesn't keep in hot weather 熱天肉類不容易保存(有保留肉類的含意)
  ex:my watch keeps good time 我的錶走得精確(有保持好時間之意)
  ex:keep off the grass 不要踐踏草地(保持離開草地)
  ex:keep away from the fire 不要靠近火(保持遠離火)
  ex:they keep a dog 他們養一條狗(有保持與繼續這狗的意思)
  ex:my brother keeps a store in taipei我哥哥在台北經營一家商店(有保持與繼續一家店的意思)
  ex:he keeps asking me for money 他繼續向我要錢
leave 主要做'離開'的意思,有時為翻譯通順解釋為'留下'
  ex:when do you leave taipei? 你何時離開台北?
  ex:i left school two years ago我兩年前兩離開了學校
  ex:we 're leaving for japan next week下星期我們將啟程前往日本(有離開本地的意思)
  ex:i left the book on the table 我把書留在桌子上(有我離開這本書的含意)
  ex:he left a wife and two children 他遺下一妻二子(有他離開的含意)
be 主要表示'是'的意思,但也常表示'存在,成為,舉行'
 ex:god is 神是存在的
 ex:she wants to be a football player她想成為一名足球員
 ex:when will their wedding be?他們的婚禮何時舉行

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易混淆的動詞:做,說,聽,看,畫,到達,帶...等

do did done doing做某事
ex:i do something for you 我為你做某事
慣用語有:
  do one's [duty 盡義務| job 盡職| best 盡力]
  do 人 a favor(幫...忙),do away with(廢除),do with(利用,忍受,需要),do without(不需要)
  have [something|nothing] to do with (與...[有|無]關)
  do the [cleaning 清掃| homework 做作業| washing 洗| cooking 煮]
  do 人 [good|harm] (對某人有[益|害])
make made made making做某物
ex:i made a desk for him 我為他做一張桌子
慣用語有:
  make a [mistake 犯錯| speech 演說| bed 舖床| face 扮鬼臉| living 謀生| decision 做決定]
  make an [effort 努力| appointment with 與...約會]
  make [haste 趕快| progress 進步| sense 合理| believe 假裝| sure 確定| use of 利用| fun of 取笑| friends with 與...交朋友]

speak spoke spoken speaking
  說某語言,發表演說,指說話的本能和說話的方式
  ex:he is speaking at dinner他正在晚宴中演說
  慣用語有speak [well|ill] of 人(說某人[好|壞]話) , not to speak of...(...更不用說了),speaking of...(談到...)
say said said saying
  說某句話,說明時間,報紙布告的訊息,涵義廣泛
  ex:he says that he is busy 他說他很忙
  慣用語有it goes without saying(不用說),it is said(據說),to say nothing of(更不用說),strange to say(奇怪的事),...
tell told told telling
  講故事,說實話或謊話,辨別,叫某人做某事
  ex: i will tell you a joke我要告訢你一個笑話
  ex:he cannot tell right from wrong他無法辨別是非
talk talked talked talking
  連續性說話,談話
  ex:what were they talking about他們講什麼
  慣用語有talk over(討論),talk 人 into...(說服人做...)
state
  以口頭或書面方式陳述事實

hear  heard heard hearing 無意的聽
  ex:the deaf cannot hear聾子聽不見
  慣用語有hear from(聽到消息),hear of(聽說)
listen listened listened listening 有意的聽(後有受詞才可加to)
  ex:listen to me聽我說

see saw seem seeing 無意的看
  ex:i saw him enter your room 我看見他進入你的房間
look looked looked looking 有意的看(後有受詞才可加at)
  ex:don't look at me like that 不要那樣看著我
watch  目光緊隨事物,以注視每個動作的看
view 以特殊方式或有目地的觀看事物或觀查

draw drew drawn drawing用線條畫成某圖形
  ex:she drew a circle on the blackboard 他在黑板上畫了一個圓圈
paint painted painted painting用畫具來畫圖,作畫
  ex:do you like landscapes painted by turner 你喜歡turner畫的風景畫嗎

wear wore worn wearing穿著(狀態,是持續性的)
  ex:the boy wears a new pair of shoes 這男孩穿了一雙新鞋
put on (put put putting)穿上(瞬間動作)
  ex:he pnt on his hat and went out 他載上他的帽子然後出去
dress dressed dressed dressing穿著...的衣服
  ex:she dresses herself in red=she is dreesed in red 她穿著紅衣服

reach reached reached reaching到達vt
  ex:he reached london before dark他天黑前到達倫敦
arrive arrived arrived arriving到達vi ,(at+小地方,in+大地方)
  ex:the train arrived at the station 火車到站了
get got gotten getting到達vi ,(後接地名要先+to)
  ex:i got to taipei我到達台北
  ex:i got home at eight我八點到家(home當副詞非受詞)

take took taken taking帶去,拿去
 ex:i'll take my children to the zoo我要帶我的小孩去動物園
bring brought brought bringing拿來,帶來
 ex:please bring it with you when you come tomorrow 你明天來的時候,請把他帶來
carry carried carried carrying搬運,帶去,攜帶
 ex:he always carries a dictionary 他總是攜帶一本字典

spend spent spent spending
  句型:人 spend  時間或金錢 [on n|(in) ving],主詞常為人
  ex:he spends a lot of money on books  他在書本上花費很多錢
  ex:she spent three hours (in) watching tv 他花了二個鐘頭看電視
take took taken taking
  句型:it+takes+(人)+時間+to v,主詞常為it
  ex:it took (me) an hour to walk there 我花了一小時才走到那裡
  ex:how long does it take you to finish the work 你要花多少時間才能完成那工作
cost cost cost costing
  句型:事物+cost+(人)+金錢,主詞常為物
  ex:this dress cost thirty dollars這件衣服價值30元
  ex:it will cost you 500 dollars to repair the car 修理這部車你要花費五百塊錢

sit sat sat sitting  坐,vi
  ex:sit down,please請坐
  ex:she sits on a chair 她坐在椅子上
seat seated seated seating 容納,坐,vt
  ex:she is seated on a chair 她坐在椅子上
  ex:the theater seats two thousand people這戲院可容納2千人
set set set setting 安置,下沈

rob robbed robbed robbing
  句型:rob+人或場所+of+物
  ex:the young man robbed her of her bag 那年輕男子搶走了她的手提包
  ex:he was robbed of his watch  他的錶被搶了
steal stole stolen stealing
  句型:steal+物+from+人或場所
  ex:a thief stole the money from the safe 賊偷走了保險箱裡的錢

come came come coming到對方或說話者那邊,常解釋為來
   ex:will you come to the party 你要來這個派對嗎(自己有參加)
go went gone going 到對方或說話者以外的地方,常解釋為去
   ex:will you go to the party 你要去這個派對嗎(自己不參加)

lend lent lent lenting 借給  ex:my father lent me his camera爸爸借我相機
borrow borrowed borrowed borrowing 向...借  ex:i borrowed a camera from my father 我向爸爸借相機

lie lay lain lying 躺,位於
lie lied lied  lying 說謊
lay laid laid laying 放置,下蛋

rise rose risen rising昇起,上漲,高漲 vi
raise raised raised raising舉起,養育,募款vt

fall fell fallen falling 落下,跌倒 vi
  慣用語有fall asleep(睡著),fall behind(落後)
feel felt felt feeling覺得vt 有感覺 vi
  慣用語有feel like (想要ving,摸起來像),feel sleepy(想睡)
fell felled felled felling砍伐 vt
fail failed failed failing失敗,考試不及格 vi

2008-08-09 21:16:08發表   


 


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