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a participle(分詞)

簡介

分詞種類
    1現在分詞 ving
    2過去分詞 pp

分詞用途
    1做主要動詞
    2做形容詞修飾名詞
    3做主詞補語
    4做受詞補語
    5分詞構句
    6用分詞的貫用語

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1做主要動詞
ving(現在分詞)可表主動,進行(be+ving)
ex:it is raining now 天在下雨
pp(過去分詞)可表被動(be+pp),完成(have+pp)
ex:the book was written in english 這本書用英文寫的
ex:i have read the book already我己經看完這本書

 

2做形容詞修飾名詞
當前位修飾
 現在分詞
 ex:a rolling stone gathers no moss 滾石不生苔 
 過去分詞
 ex:a lost opportunity never returns 被錯過的機會永不再來 
後位修飾(=形容詞子句簡化成分詞片語)
 現在分詞
 ex:do you know the lady getting out of the car 你認識那個正從車子出來的女士嗎 
 ex:they treated the people with wine flowing down from statues's mouths 他們用從雕像口中流出來的酒招待大家 
 過去分詞
 ex:the language spoken in the united states is english在美國說的語言是英語 
形容詞子句變成分詞片語,方法:1去掉關代,2動詞變分詞,或去be動詞
s [who|which] v = s ving
ex:do you know the girl who sits there 你認識坐在那邊的女孩嗎
=do you know the girl sitting there

s [who|which] be ving = s ving
ex:the girl who is writing a letter is mary 在寫信的女孩是瑪麗
=the girl writing a letter is mary

s [who|which] be pp = s pp
ex:mary bought a camera which was made in japan 瑪麗買了一台日製相機
=mary bought a camera made in japan

 

3做主詞補語 (s v sc)
動詞v通常為go,come,lie,sit,stand,sleep
sc為ving時表主動
ex:the dog came running to me 這隻狗向我跑來
sc為pp時表被動
ex:the teacher sat there surrounded by his pupils 老師被學生圍坐在那裡(被動)
,但v=連綴v(seem,look,feel,get,become)要表主動,因要修飾主詞
ex:i felt disappointed in him 我對他感到失望(主動)

 

4做受詞補語(s v o oc)
v通常是感官動詞,使役動詞,以及keep,find,leave,catch,get,want
ex:i found a dog run over by a car on the road 我發現一條狗在路上被輾過

其他用法見感官動詞使役動詞資料

 

5分詞構句
副詞子句改成分詞構句
表達:時間,原因,條件,讓步及附帶狀況
改法:1去連接詞,2若主詞相同去主詞,3改變動詞如下
主動簡單式分詞構句,若v=[一般v|be+ving]則改ving
ex:if you turn to the right,you will find the school 如果向右轉,你就會找到這所學校
= turning to the right,you will find the school

主動完成式分詞構句,若v=have+pp則改having+pp,
ex:after i had finished my work,i went home 做完工作後,我就回家
= having finished my work,i went home

被動簡單式分詞構句,若v=be+pp則改(being)+pp
ex:as he was driven by hunger,he stole a cake 因為飢餓,他偷了一塊蛋糕
= (being) driven by hunger,he stole a cake

被動完成式分詞構句,若v=have+been+pp則改(haveing+been)+pp
ps主詞不同保留主詞,亦稱獨立分詞構句
ex:as it was fine,i went fishing with my father 因為天氣好我和爸爸去釣魚
= it being fine,i went fishing with my father

ps有否定詞需放分詞之前
ex:as she did not know what to do,she began to cry 她因不知如何是好,就哭起來了
=not knowing what to do,she began to cry

保留連接詞
用途:使句意更明顯
條件:1主詞相同,2連接詞有be+[pp|ving](簡單分詞構句)
ex:when she was asked that to do,she was at a loss 當問到她怎麼辦時,她茫然不知所措
= when asked that to do,she was at a loss

 

6用分詞的慣用語
generally speaking(一般來說),strictly speaking(嚴格來說),frankly speaking(坦白地說),roughly speaking(大約地說)
ex:generally speaking,man is stronger than woman 一般而言,男人比女人強壯
considering(以...而論),concerning(關於...),speaking of(說到...)
ex:considering her age,she looks young 以實際年齡而論,她顯得年輕
judging from(由...看來)
ex:judging from his abilities,he can finish that work in time 由他的能力判斷,他可以及時完成那項工作
seeing that(既然),provided that(假如)
ex:seeing that he says so,it must be true 既然他這樣說,那一定是真的


 


 

 

 

參考資料:圖解英文法精通及其他書藉與網路

 

 

2008-07-17 16:47:50發表   


 


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