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疑問,附加,倒裝,否定

疑問句
問句用什麼動詞就用什麼動詞簡答 
ex:will sue be here tomorrow ?
 yes,she will 或no,she won't
ps:簡答不能用縮寫
ex:yes, she'll 是錯誤方法 

疑問詞做主詞
 ex:what happened yesterday? 昨天發生什麼事
 ex:who came to lunch? 誰來吃午餐
 
疑問詞非主詞
 代名詞用法:
who,which,what(用於人問職業身份)
 ex:Who are you?
 ex:Which is my seat? 哪個座位是我的?
 ex:What do you usually have for lunch? 你午餐通常都吃什麼?  

 形容詞用法:whose,which,what可做疑問形容詞,格式為[whose|which|what]+n
 ex:whose book is this? 這本書是誰的 
 ex:which car will you buy ?你要買那一輛車?
 ex:what time does she get up? 她幾點起床? 
 疑問副詞:when,where,why,how
 ex:when does he leave work? 他何時離開這工作?
 ex:why does he always get up at 7 p.m. ? 為何他總是7點起床?
 ex:why didn't you tell me ? 為何不告訢我    
 ex:where did you go yesterday ? 你昨天去那裡?
 ex:how was the competition? 比賽感
覺如何?
 ex:how did you get here 你如何扺達這裡
 ex:how do you feel / how are you feeling 

what與其他單字常見配法 
 what time(問精確的時間) 
 ex:what time did she come? 
 what kind of 
 ex:what kind of shoes did you buy? 你要買什麼種類的鞋子 
how與adv常見配法
 how soon 再過多久
 ex:How soon will he comes home? 他在過多久回家
 how well
 how quickly 
how與adj常見配法 

 how old 年紀多大
 ex:how old are you? 你年紀多大? 
 how tall
 how big
 how hungry
 how sleepy
how與頻率單字常見用法
 how many times 幾次 
 ex:how many times do you play basketball every month? 你
每月打幾次籃球  
 how many 多少
 ex:how many pens does he have ? 他有多少筆?
 how often多久 
 ex:How often does he comes home? 他多常回家
how與其他單字常見配法
 how long 時間多長 
 ex:How long will it take to drive from Kuala Lumpur to Penang? 從吉隆坡開車到檳城要花多久時間
 ex:How long will he comes home? 他多久時間才回家
 how far 距離多遠
 ex:
how far is the school from here? 從這裡到學校有多遠
 ex:how far do you live from company?你住的地方離公司多遠
 how about(=what about)+[n|ving] ...如何
 ex:how about three o'clock 三點如何?
 ex:how about going to the zoo 去動物園如何?
 

... 

問句 > 間接問句(名詞子句)
wh- 助v s > 句子 wh- s v(wh-後主動詞是肯定句敍述形式,此句常用在know,doubt,wonder後)
ex:who is he ? > do you know who he is ? 你知道他是誰嗎?
ex:where does tom live? > i don't know where tom lives . 我不知道湯姆住在那裡
ex:what does that word mean? tell me what that word means . 告訢我那個字的意思


問句 > 猜測問句
wh- 助v s > wh- do you 猜測動詞 s v (猜測v如think,guess,believe,consider認為,suppose想)
ex:what will he buy ? > what do you think he will buy ? 你覺得他要買什麼
ex:how much does the watch costs ? how much do you guess the watch costs ? 你猜這支錶價格多少


常用句型
what's [wrong|the matter] with ... ? ...有什麼毛病
 ex: what's the matter with you 你怎麼了?
what [do|does|did] n look like? n的樣子如何?
 ex:what does your new hat look like ? 你的新帽子樣子如何?
[how about|what about|what do you say to] ving ...如何
 ex:what do you say to taking a walk ? 去散步如何?
[would you like to|shall we|let's] 原v ...如何
 ex:shall we take a walk ? 去散步如何?
 =let's take a walk , shall we ?
(用let's,後要接shall we)

附加問句
規則型規
 肯定句格式:s + 敘述句v ...,附加問句v not + s(通常翻成不是嗎)

 否定句格式:s + 敘述句v not ...,附加問句v + s(表否定的字有:no,never,nothing,seldom,little,few,scarcely,hardly)
動詞規則
 前面的動詞用什麼,附加問句的動詞就用什麼
 ex:you are a student, aren't you ?
 ex:he came to class yesterday, didn't he?

 祈使句附加問句的動詞用will 
主詞規則
 前面的主詞用什麼,附加問句的主詞就用相關的代名詞 
 ex:tom was in class too, wasn't he ?
 主詞若是this,that,everything,anything,ving,to v,非人稱單v ,附加問句主詞就用it
 ex:this is your pen, isn't it?
 主詞若是these,those,somebody,everybody, 附加問句主詞就用they
 ex:all birds lay eggs, don't they?
 肯定句主詞若是I ,附加問句為am I not或aren't I
 主詞若是there,  附加問句主詞為there
命令句格式:let...或原v...

 ex:let's go ,shall we?我們走吧?  (用let's,表提議用shall we )
 ex:let's not tell him ,all right?咱們別告訢他,好嗎? (  用let's not,表否定提議用all right )
 ex:let us go ,will you? 讓我們走吧,好嗎?  (用let,表請求用will you )
 ex:pass me the sugar ,will you?把糖給我,好嗎?  (用原v,表請求用will you ,更客氣可用would you)
 ex:have a cup of coffee,won't you?喝一杯咖啡,好嗎?  (用原v,表邀請用won't you )
ps:若有名詞子句,則依名詞子句的s判斷附加問句的s
 ex:i think john has left , hasn't he 我想約翰己經走了,不是嗎?
若有對等連接詞連接的子句,以最接近附加問句的句子的s來決定附加問句的s
 ex:they were absent yesterday ,but mary wasn't ,was she ?昨天他們缺席,但瑪麗沒有,是嗎?

否定句
格式:[aux|let's] not [原v|pp] , not to v ,[had better|would rather] not
ps:do not=don't, does not=doesn't, will not = won't ,must not = mustn't , shall not = shan't , can not = can't
ex:You had better not miss the last MRT.你最好不要錯過最後一班捷運
ex:I would rather not to do this 我寧願不做這個

含有否定詞的字有
 絕不never=not at all=in no way=on no account=by no means=under no circumstances
 很少few,幾乎沒有little
 ex:there are only few books left in my attic 我閣樓裡幾乎沒剩多少書
 ex:in spite of his great help,the situation improved very little 儘管他大力幫助,情況還是未獲改善
 很少seldom(=no often)=rarely,
 幾乎不scarcely=barely=hardly(=almost...not)
 ex:i could hardly believe what you said 我幾乎無法相信你所說的話
 其他還有no,none,nothing,nobody,no sooner,直到no until,neither
  
ps:
no和not的差別
no是形容詞,可直接放在名詞前
ex:There is no pen.
not是副詞,主要接在名詞前已有the, a(n),any, much, enough等詞的情況
ex:There is not any pen.
  

兩個否定=肯定
1 , s never v ... [but s v|without ving] 每...必...
 ex:he never goes to a bookstore but he buys some books 他每次進書店一定買些書
2 , there is no n but v  沒有一個...不...
 ex:there is no mother but loves her children
3 , ...few ns but v 幾乎每個n都v
 ex:i know few people but are concerned about air pollution 幾乎我所認識的每個人都擔心空氣污染

部份否定
1 , all ... not = not all... 並非所有
 ex:all men are not honest 人並非都是誠實的
2 , both...not = not  both ... 並非兩者
 ex:both his parents are not living 他的雙親並非都健在
3 , every...not = not every ... 並非每一
 ex:this train doesn't stop at every station 這班火車並不是每站都停
4 , not [always|necessarily] 未必是
 ex: the rich are not always happy  有錢的人未必是快樂的

意義為否定
1 , the last n ...[to v|that s v]  最不...
 ex:this was the last thing i would do 我最不願意做此事
2 , fail to v=be unable to v 未能...,沒有...
 ex:he failed to follow my advice 他沒有遵從我的權告
3 , [not|never] fail to v = v without fail  一定,務必
 ex:i never fail to keep my word 我一定守信
4 , far from (=anything but,by no means,not ~ at all,not~in the least) 絕不
 ex:his explanation is far from satisfactory 他的解釋一點也不令人滿意
ps:nothing but=only , all but = almost
 
重要句型
1 , it goes without saying that ...=needless to say,... 不用說=it is needless to say that...
 ex:needless to say,education is important 不用說教育是重要的
2 , cannot ...too 愈...愈好
 ex:a student cannot be too diligent 學生愈勤勉愈好
3 , little did i think ... 沒想到
 ex:little did i think we'd got lost 沒想到我們會迷路
4 , little did i dream of 作夢也沒想到
 ex:little did i dream of coming across such a problem 作夢也沒想到會遇到這樣的問題
5 , not so much a as b=not a so much as b 與其說a不如說b
 ex:he is not so much diligent as clever 與其說他勤勉,不如說他聰明
6 , not so much as 甚至沒
  ex:he did not so much as inform me of this news in advance 他甚至沒有事先告訴我這個消息
7 , there is no ving = it is impossible to v 不可能
8 , leave nothing to be desired = be perfect 毫無缺點
9 , not only aux s v...,but s v...不僅...而且


倒裝句(強調句中某一部份,或為了字序方便)
敘述句> 倒裝句
1 ,
s aux... 否定詞 ... > 否定詞  aux s v

  ex:i know  little about him 我對他所知極少
   = little do i know about him
  ex:i have never heard of such a thing 我從未聽過這種事
    = never have i heard of such a thing

2 ,
s...only 副詞子句或片語> only 副詞子句或片語 aux s v

  ex:you realize its value  only when you lose your health 只有你失去健康時,才會了解他的價值
   = only when you lose your health do you realize its value
  ex:we can succeed only by working hard 唯有努力,我們才會成功
   = only by working hard can we succeed
  ex:only in the leading museums can the objects be fully appreciated by the world 只有留置在一流的博物館內,這些文物才能被世人欣賞個夠
3 ,
 肯定句 s aux ,too > 倒裝句and so aux s

 ex:mary likes flowers , and [i do,too|so do i] 瑪麗喜歡花,我也喜歡
 ex:he like tea, and [she does, too | so does she]
 
 否定句 s aux not,either > 倒裝句 and [nor|neither] aux s
 ex:john will not come , and [mary won't,either|[nor|neither] will mary] 約翰不來,瑪麗也不來
 ex:He doesn't like tea, and [she doesn't either |[nor|neither] does she
 
4 ,
[n|代名詞] v 地方副詞,介副詞,副詞片語 > 地方副詞,介副詞,副詞片語 [v n|代名詞 v]
 地方副詞(here,there...),介副詞(up,down,off...),副詞片語(on the desk,...)
  ex:the trees fell down > down fell the trees 樹倒了
  ex:you are here > here you are 你要的東西在這裡

5 , if s [were|had|should]... > [were|had|should] s ...
  ex:[if you had|had you] studied hard , you would have passed the exam 假如你努力過,就能考及格了
  ex:[if john were|were john] here now ,he would give me a hand 假如約翰在的話,他會幫助我

6 , (al)though s v [adv|adj|n],s v... > [adv|adj|n] [as|though] s v,s v... (n放在句首時,冠詞要省略)
7 , s [aux|be] so [adj|adv] that s v > so [adj|adv]
[aux|be] s that s v
 
ex:his behavior is so good that we like him very much 他的行為這麼好,所以我們都很喜歡他
    = so good is his behavior that we like him very much

2008-08-10 19:27:13發表   


 


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