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a pronoun(代名詞)

簡介

代名詞種類有:
人稱代名詞,you,it,her
所有代名詞,mine,yours,his...(所有格+代名詞)
反身代名詞,himself,myself
指示代名詞,this,that,these,those,...
不定代名詞,one,some,any,other...
疑問代名詞,who,what,which,...
關係代名詞,who,which,that,as...


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人稱代名詞



主格 受格 所有格
第一人稱 單數 I me
my
複數 we
us
our
第二人稱 單/複數 you
you
your
第三人稱
單數 he
him
his
she
her
her
it
it
its
複數 they
them
their
主格用法:做主詞或主詞補語可用
受格用法:做及物動詞或介系詞的受詞
所有格用法:做形容詞修飾名詞
ps:第三人稱,主,受,所有格變化,重要的是she her her , it it its

it代替特定單數名詞,them代替特定複數名詞,這裡的特定是指the,this,that,my,your,his,...+n
ex:a:do you want this pen? b:yes,i want it
ex:a:have you read the books i lent you ?yes,i have read them

one(s)代替不特定的單,複數名詞,不特定指a+n
ex:a:do you have a knife? b:yes i have one
ex:give me apples.i want big ones
ex:the reincarnated leaders were always discovered in the households of lowly families rather than noble ones
這些轉世的領袖一向是在卑微家庭而非貴族家庭中被發掘出來

注意事項
1,兩個以上人稱代名詞使用有順序
單數,2,3,1
ex;you,he and i are good friends 你,他和我都是好朋友
複數,1,2,3
ex:both we and they know it 我們和他們都知道這件事
2,在比較句中,人稱代名詞為主格或受格有不同意義
ex:he likes you better than (he likes )me 他喜歡你更甚於他喜歡我(做受格)
ex:he likes you better than i (like you) 他喜歡你更甚於我喜歡你(做主格)

3,受詞補語用受格,主詞補語用主格
句型1 s v o to be oc
ex:i thought it to be him (it=受詞,oc用受格=him)我以為那是他
ex: they took him to be me (him=受詞,oc用受格=me)他們誤認為他是我

句型2 s v (that) s be o
ex: i thought (that) it was he (it=主詞,o用主格=he)我以為那是他
句型3 s be+pp to be o
ex: he was taken to be i (he=主詞,o主格=i )他被誤認是我
4,同句子同一人稱的受格及所有格不可同時存在
ex:the boy hit me on my eye (錯誤)
ex:the boy hit me on the eye (用the取代所有格)

it用法
指時間,天氣,距離,並代替前面提過的名詞
可做形式上的主詞,虛主詞
it+v+...+ving
ex:it is no use crying over the spilt milk 覆水難收
it+v+...+to+原v
ex:it is wrong to tell a lie 說謊是錯的
ex:it is better for those objects to remain at a cetain place than to be moved around 最好將這些物品留置在某個地點而不要到處搬移

it+v+...+that+s+v
ex:it is true that he is old,but he is still strong 他老了是事實,但仍健壯(加強語氣用)
可做形式上的受詞,v常用take,find,make,believe,think,consider
s+v+it+oc+to+v,
ex:i make it a rule to get up early 我經常早起 (習慣於=make it a rule to),(make it possible to 使...成為可能)
ex:the conflicts between john and his teacher made it difficult for the teacher to judge his performance objectively
john和他老師的衝突使得老師很難客觀地評判他的表現
ex:your timely help made it possible for me to finish my job 你的即時幫助使我能夠完成我的工作

s+v+it+oc+that+s+v
ex:i took it for granted that he knew me 我認為他應當認識我(視為當然=take it for granted that)
ps:as it is ,放句首表事實上(=actually=in fact),放句尾表保持原狀
ex:leave the lab as it is 實驗室的東西請照原樣保留
ex:she hoped that things would be better,but as it is,they are geting worse她希望事情會好點,但事實上,事情越來越壞



所有代名詞

  所有格 所有代名詞=所有格+名詞
第一人稱 單數 my mine=my+n
複數 our ours=our+n
第二人稱 單/複數 your yours=your+n
第三人稱 單數 his his=his+n
her hers=her+n
its its=its+n
複數
their theirs =their+n

用途
1避免重覆
2避免做異類比較
ex:his house is larger than mine (mine=my house)他的房子比我的房子大
!= his house is larger than i 錯誤用法

3用於雙重所有格,格式為:限詞+n+of+所有代名詞,限詞種類有:
冠詞:a,an,the
指示形容詞:this,that,these,those
不定形容詞:no,any some,another
所有格:my,your...
ex:he is a friend of mine 他是我的一個朋友
!= he is my a friend 錯誤用法



反身代名詞

  主格/受格 所有格=人稱代名詞的所有格+own
第一人稱 單數 myself my own
複數 ourselves our own
第二人稱 單數 yourself your own
複數 yourselves
第三人稱 單數 himself his own
herself her own
itself its own
複數 htemselves their own

用途
1,主詞與受詞同一人 ex:you must take care of yourself 你必須自己保重
2,主受格加強語氣 ex:i myself did it 我親自做的 ,ex:i saw the teacher himself我看到老師本人
3,所有格加強語氣 ex:i have my own house 我有我自己的房子
4,成為反身代名詞慣用語,oneself隨主詞而變化
make oneself at home(不要客氣),come to oneself(甦醒)
ex:make yourself at home,please 請不要客請
enjoy oneself(玩得愉快),beside oneself(發狂),seat oneself(坐下=sit),refresh oneself(提神)
ex:we enjoyed ourselves at the party 我們在宴會上玩得很愉快
help oneself to(自行取用),absent oneself from(缺席),dress oneself in(穿著),devote oneself to(專心於),pride oneself on(以...為榮)
ex:help yourself to the fruit 請自行取用水果
by oneself(獨自=alone),of onself(自行),for oneself(獨力,為自己)
ex:he finished the work by himself 他獨自完成這工作
ps:by itself=on its own



指示代名詞
this(複數=these),that(複數=those)
用法
1,this指較近的人或物,that指較遠的
ex:this is my hat and that is yours 這是我的帽子,那是你的帽子
2,that代替前面提過單數名詞,those代替前面提過的複數名詞
ex:the price of this table is higher than that of this chair 這張桌子的價錢高過這把椅子的價錢
ex:the ears of a rabbit are longer than those of a cat 兔子的耳朵比貓的長

3,this,that代替前面所提句子或子句,and that(而且)
ex:i did not go. this made him very angry (this=i did not go)我沒有去.這使他非常生氣
ex:he makes mistakes,and that very often (that=he makes mistakes)他犯錯誤,且常犯

4,this代替the latter(後者),that代替the former(前者)
ex:health is above wealth;this cannot give so much happiness as that (this=wealth,that=health)
健康勝於財富;後者不會給予前者那麼多的快樂

5,與表時間名詞相連成為副詞片語
像是this [morning|year|...](今[早|年]),that [day|night|...](那[天|晚]),these days(近來),in those days(那時,當時)
6,those who...=people who...(...的人們)
ex:heaven helps those who help themselves 天助自助者



不定代名詞

some/any
some用於肯定句,any用於疑問句,否定句,條件句
ex:if there is any left,please give me some 如果還有多餘的話,請給我一些

other/another

one...the other(一個...另一個),one...the others(一個...其餘的),others(別人=other people)
ex:i have two dogs;one is white,and the other is black我有兩隻狗,一隻白的,另一隻是黑的
one...another...the other 一個...一個...另一個
ex:there were three men.one was blind,another was deaf ,and the other was lame有三個人,一瞎一聾,另一個是跛子
some of...,the others...一些...其餘的...
ex:i know only some of the students;the others are strangers to me我只認得其中一些學生,其他都不認識
some...others...[still others|](有些...有些...[更有些|])
ex:hobbies very with people.some enjoy singing,others like to collect stamps,and still others love hiking
嗜好因人而異,有些人喜歡唱歌,有些人喜愛集郵,也有些人愛好健行

another(另一),one thing...another(另一),one another(3者互相)
ex:to know is one thing;to teach is another 知為一回事;教是另一回事
one after another(一個又一個地)
ex:the buses left one after another 巴士一部接一部開走了

each

用於個別和二個以上的每一個,ex:each one of the two sisters has a new pen 兩個姐妹每一個人都有一支新筆
可當形容詞和代名詞,
ex:each of the boys was given a book (each當代名詞)
ex:each boy receive a present (each當形容詞)

each other(2者互相)
注意:不可和not連用
every
用於全體和三個以上的每一個,ex:every one of my fingers手指五隻
可當形容詞,ex:every one of these books (every當形容詞)
not every(並非)表部份否定,ex:not every student walks to school 並非每個學生都走路上學
every [other|two|three] day(每隔[1|2|3]天)

both
為二者全部,all為三者以上全部,both of them(他們兩個=they both),
both...and(又...又...=at once...and...)
ex:i know both of the two girls 兩個女孩我都認識
ex:i know all of the three girls 三個女孩我都認識

neither為二者全無,none為三者以上全無
ex:i know neither of the two girls 兩個女孩我都不認識
ex:i knwo none of the three girls 三個女孩我都不認識

either為二者任一,any為三者以上任一,either will do(隨便那個都行)
ex:you may take either of the two books 兩本書中,你可任取一本
ex:you may take any of the three books 三本書中,你可以任取一本


such

such+[a+單n|複n|不可數n],such後可接單數可數名詞,複數可數名詞和不可數名詞,
ex:such a gift(接單n) ,such gifts(接複n), such news(接不可數n)
慣用語有such as(諸如),as such(如此),句型有such n as...(像...這樣的n),such n that...(如此n以致於...)
ex:he can speak such languages as chinese and english 他會說像中文和英語這樣的語言
ex:it was such a warm day that i took off my coat 天氣非常緩和,所以我把上衣脱掉
ex:i like drinks such as tea and coffee 我喜歡喝諸如茶和咖啡之類的東西
ex:he was a foreigner and was treated as [such|a foreigner] 他是外國人所以就被當成外國人對待

same,慣用語有the same(同樣的,當形容詞或代名詞用)
ex:never make the same mistake again 不要再犯相同的錯誤
句型有the same ... as (和...同一類,用as準關代),the same...that(和..同一個,用that關代)
ex:this is the same pen as i lost 這枝筆像我遺失的
ex:this is the same pen that i lost 這枝筆正是我遺失的
ex:i don't have the same problem as yours 我沒有和你類似的問題
ex:do you feel the same way that i feel?你跟我有一樣的感覺嗎?

other 其他,複數詞 
代名詞用法:others
ex:There are others on a table.有其他東西在桌上
ex:he can eat others on a table 他能吃桌上的其他東西  

形容詞用法,other+n ex: There are other apples in table 有其他蘋果在桌上
another 另一個,單數詞 
代名詞用法 ex:he can eat another on a table他能吃桌上的另一個東西
形容詞用法 another+n ex:he can eat another apple on a table 他能吃桌上的另一個蘋果 
 

ther other 最後那些
複數代名詞用法:the others ex:he will eat the others 他將吃最後那些
單數代名詞用法:ther other ex:he will eat the other 他將吃最後一個 
形容詞用法:the other+n ex:he will eat the other apples 他將吃最後那些蘋果  

 

 

 

參考資料:各大英文書藉與網路資料..等

2008-07-17 16:48:12發表   


 


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