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an adjective(形容詞)

 

簡介
形容詞用途:修飾名詞或代名詞
決定形容詞的位置有:
     敘述用法與限定用法
     形容詞在名詞後的特定情況
     多形容詞的次序
數量形容詞分為:
     只可用在可數名詞
     只可用在不可數名詞
     可同時用在可數與不可數名詞
形容詞變化有:
     規則變化
     不規則變化
常用句型有:
     原級常用的句型
     比較級常用的句型
     最高級常用的句型
其他補充:
     比較級慣用語


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形容詞位置
敘述用法:修飾主詞或受詞的性質狀態,放在動詞後,也就是補語的位置,而動詞常為連綴動詞
ex:roses are red 玫瑰是紅的(修飾主詞)
ex:the news made them happy那消息使他們快樂(修飾受詞)

有a開頭形容詞只能做敘述用,如alike相似的,alive活著的,afraid害怕的,alone單獨的,asleep睡著的,awake醒的,aware知道的,ashamed感到羞愧的
ex:this fish is alive這是一條活魚(修飾主詞)
限定用法:形容詞在名詞前修飾
ex:a diligent student will succeed勤勉的學生會成功


形容詞在名詞後的特定情況
1名詞是no-,any-,
some-,every-,-one,-body,-thing
ex:let me tell you something interesting 讓我告訢你一些有趣的事
2與數詞用或如deep深,high,long,old,thick厚,wide寬
ex:the box is 20 inches long,18 inches wide,and 16 inches high 這個盒子有20吋長18吋寬16吋高
3為形容詞片語時
ex:he looked at the notebook on the desk他望著書桌上的筆記本
4有一連串形容詞時
ex:she is a lady,beautiful,kind and rich她是一個美麗,仁慈又富有的女人


多形容詞的次序
1,all,both,double,such,what(多麼),many在前;冠詞,所有格,指示形容詞在後
ex:what a fine day!多麼好的天氣! ex:both his parents are here 他的雙親都在此 ex:all my love is for you alone 我全部的愛只獻給你一人
2,序數(first)在前,基數(two,three)在後
ex:the last two seasons of the year are fall and winter 一年的最後兩個季節是秋天和冬天
3,越接近修飾名詞的形容詞在前
ex:she is a lovely fat little girl 她是個可愛的小胖妹
4,
冠詞,性狀,大小

 

ps:
動詞變形容詞

將動詞變現在分詞,可形容主詞,可解釋為令人...
ex:he is boring 他令人感到無趣 
將動詞變過去分詞,可形容主詞的感覺,可解釋為感到...
ex:he is bored = he feel bored 他感到很無聊

ps:
名詞變形容詞,只能用單數形
ex:I have a flower garden
ex:I read a lot of newspaper articles

 

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數量形容詞
只可修飾可數名詞有
many,quite a few(很多),
few(幾乎沒),a few(一些),several,a number of(許多),a [great|good|large] number of(很多)
ex:i have few books with me 我沒有帶幾本書來(注意:few帶有否定意味)
ex:there are still a few questions i don't understand 這裡還有些問題我不瞭解
ex:I dont want many carrots 我不想要太多胡蘿蔔 
ps:many+複數可數名詞=many+a+單數名詞
ex:i have visited many [a country|countries] 我曾去過很多國家
ps:a number of students(很多學生) != the number of students(學生的數目)
只可修飾不可數名詞有
much,quite a little(很多),
a little(一些),little(幾乎沒),a [good|great] deal of(許多)
ex:the girl is so ill that little hope is left 這女孩病得嚴重以致於沒有什麼希望(注意:little帶有否定意味)
ex:how can this stepmother care little about her children? 這個繼母怎能不關心她的小孩?(注意:little帶有否定意味)
ex:can i have a little more salt 我可不可以再多要一點鹽
ex:She doesn't want much beef 她不想要太多牛肉 
可修飾可數及不可數有
plenty of(很多),
any,用在疑問或否定
ex:I don’t have any apples 我沒有任何蘋果 
ex:Do you have any beef? 你有任何牛肉嗎? 
  
some,用在肯定句    
 ex:I'd like some apples 我想要一些蘋果 
 ex:I'd like some water 我想要一些水
 用在請求
 ex:can I have some cake?你能給我一些蛋糕嗎
 用在提供東西給某人 
 ex:would you like some fruit?你想要一些水果嗎  

a lot of(=lots of) 
ex:he has a lot of rice on his plate 他的盤子有很多飯 
ex:do you eat a lot of beef 你吃很多牛肉嗎

ps:
how many要接複數可數和複數動詞 

ex:How many patatoes would you like?你想要多少洋芋片? 
ex:How many appels are there?
how much接單數動詞 
ex:How much rice would you like? 你想要多少飯
ex:how much money does tom make? 


分數表示規則
規則1:分子用基數,分母的序數
1/2=one half=a half
1/3=one-third=a third
1/4=one-fourth=a quarter
規則2:分子大於1,分母須加s
3/4=three-fourths=three quarters
2/3=two-thirds
3/5=three-fifths

複合形容詞,格式如下
數字-單n +n ,ex:a ten-story building 十層樓的建築物
數字-單n-adj +n ,
ex:a ten-year-old boy 十歲的小孩
adj-Ned +n ,
ex:high-priced goods 高價位的貨品

 

 

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其他形容詞用法

the same as 相同
ex:this car is the same as that one
ex:he is the same age as my sister

similar to相似
ex:this car is similar to that one
different from不同
ex:this car is different from that one 


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形容詞變化
原級:一般的形容詞
比較級:用在兩者之間的比較
最高級:用在三者之間的比較

規則變化
  adj類型 adj變化方式 原級ex:
比較級ex:
最高級ex:
簡單
規則
單音節 後接[er|est] long longer longest
字尾為e 後接[r|st] wise wiser wisest
字尾為[a|e|i|o|u]+子音 後接重覆子音+[er|est] hot hotter hottest
複雜
規則
字尾為子音+y 變成子音+[ier|iest] dry drier driest
雙音節adj 變成[more|most]+雙音節adj useful more usefu most useful
雙音節adj字尾為[y|er|le|ow] 則和單音節變化一樣 easy
clever
able
easier
cleverer
abler

easiest
cleverest
ablest

不規則變化
[good|well] > better > best
[bad|ill] > worse > worst
[many|much] > more > most
little > less > least
old > [older|elder] > [oldest表年紀新舊|eldest表長幼]
far > [farther更遠|further更進一步] > [farthest表距離|furthest表程度]
late > [later較晚|latter較後的] > [latest表時間|last表順序]
ex:it is too late to make up something for her 為她做一些彌補己經為時太晚了
ex:i cannot understand the latter part of her point of view 我不懂她論點的後半段
ex:this is the latest version i bought yesterday 這是我昨天買到的最新版本
ex:it is the last chance for us to overcome the difficulties 這是我們克服困難的最後一次機會


原級注意事項
1,very可修飾adj和adv 
ex:she is very kind她很仁慈
比較級注意事項
1,有than不加the,如adjer than
ex:he is taller than she
2,有of要加the,如the adjer of the two
ex:he is the taller of the two
3,
[much|far|a lot]可修飾adjer,adver
 ex:he is [much|far|a lot] richer than I am他比我更有錢

最高級注意事項
1,adjest前加the,
ex:he is the fastest runner in the class
2,advest不加the,
ex:he runs fastest in the class
3,[much the|
the very]可修飾adjest
ex:she is [the very|much the] most diligent girl in the class她是班上最最用功的


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原級常用句型

as...as...
1.和...一樣,as [adj|adv] (+[n|a+n]) as = the same n as = no less [adj|adv] than

ex:he is as old as i 他的年紀和我一樣
= he is the same age as I 
ex:i have as many books as tom 我的書和tom一樣多(n=不可數名詞或複數名詞)
ex:you are as good a student as she 你和她一樣都是好學生(a+n=可數單數名詞)

可形成倒裝句型
ex:you should study as hard as peter (does) 你應該和peter一樣用功
= you should study as hard as does peter
ps:
just as 強調100%一樣
ex:he is just as old as me 
almost as/nearly as/not quite as 強調90%一樣
ex:he is almost as old as tom
ex:he is nearly as young as tom
ex:he is not quite as old as tom

not nearly as 強調只有20%一樣
ex:he is not nearly as old as tom   
2.儘可能,as [adj|adv] as [one can|possible]
ex:come here as soon as possible 儘可能快來這裡
ex:we tired to disturb our parents as little as possible when we were playing 在我們玩的時候,我們盡量不打擾到父母親
ex:living in a highly competitive society,you definitely have to arm yourself with as much knowledge as possible
處在競爭激烈的社會,你一定得儘量充實自己的知識

3.非常,as adj as can be
ex:she was as happy as could be 她非常快樂
4.倍數 [as adj as|adjer than],倍數如twice,[three|four...] times,...
ex:a is four times as long as b a是b的4倍長
ex:the typhoon is two times as violent as the storm 這個颱風的強度是之前那個暴風雨的兩倍

5.即...又...,as adj as adj
ex:my brother is as brave as wise 我哥哥既勇敢又聰明
6.不如...,not [as|so] [adj|adv] as 
ex:wood is not [as|so] strong as steel 木頭沒有鋼鐵那麼堅硬
= [less|not more] adj than
ex:wood is [less|not more] strong than steel

和...一樣不,no more adj than
ex:she is no more beautiful than mary 她和瑪麗一樣不漂亮

與其說a不如說b,more b than a = less a than b = not so much a than b
ex:my brother is more brave than wise 我哥哥與其說是聰明,不如說是勇敢
= my brother is less wise than brave
= my brother is not so much wise than brave

ps:
not so much...as~=not...so much as~,與其說是...不如說

ex:true happiness lies not so much in richness as in contentment 真正的幸福與其說是在富有,不如說是在於滿足
ex:this merchant's success is not by luck so much as by industry 這位商人的成功與其說是靠運氣,不如說是靠勤勉

多麼...,how adj/adv s v
ex:how important it is to study ! 讀書是多麼的重要



比較級常用句型
比...更,
[adjer|adver] than

than後有二種接法
 接子句為正式用法
 ...beV + adjer than + s beV 
 ex:I am older than he is  
 ex:she was happier than she had ever been. 她比以前任何時候都更高興 
 ...v + adver than + s v
 ex:she works harder than I do 
 ex:marry drives more carefully than she used to
   
接受格代名詞為口語用法
 ex:he arrived earlier than them=he arrived earlier than they did
 接所有格或所有格代名詞

 ex:your hair is longer than tom's
 ex:your watch is faster than mine 你的錶比我的錶快
ps:
not less adj than = adjer than
ex:farmers are [not less|more] important than factory workers 農人可能比工廠工人更為重要
ps:
模糊比較
she likes her dog better than her friend,可能有以下兩種意思
ex:she likes her dog better than her friend [does|likes] 她喜歡她的狗勝過她的朋友喜歡她的狗
ex:she likes her dog better than she [does|likes] her friend 她喜歡她的狗勝過她喜歡她的朋友 

I know tom better than john,可能有以下兩種意思
ex:I know tom better than I know john 我知道tom更好比我知道john 
ex:I know tom better than john does 我知道tom比john更好

比...更不
less [adj|adv] than 只能用在雙音節以上的字
ex:a pen is less expensive than a car.
ex:a pen is less large than a car 是錯的,因為larger是單音節

 

二者中較...,
the adjer of the two

ex:he is the taller of the two brothers 他是兩兄弟中較高的一個

愈來愈...
adjer and adjer

ex:it is getting hotter and hotter 天氣愈來愈熱了
more and more adj
ex:she becomes more and more beautiful 她變得愈來愈美了

愈...就愈...,the adjer...,the adjer...
ex:the higher you go,the colder you feel 你愈向上走,你就愈覺得寒冷
ex:the more you studied, the more you learned 你讀的越多,你就學的越多
ex:the harder you study,the more you learn 你讀的更用功,你就學的越多
ps
常用片語
the more,the merrier 越多越快樂
the sonner,the better 越快越好

a be [adjer to 受格|adjer than 主格] ( by ~years) ,例如:
[senior to|older than]年長於,[junior to|younger than]年幼於,[superior to|better than]優/大於,[inferior to|worse than]劣於
ex:i am [junior to him|younger than he] 我比他年輕
ex:i am [her senior|senior to her|older than she] by three years 我比她大三歲
= i am three years [her senior|older than she]



最高級常用句型
the adjest 最..., 常接以下 
 
of all或among
 ex:john is the wisest of all 約翰是所有人中最聰明的
 in+範圍
 ex:Taipei is the largest city in Taiwan   
 have ever...
 ex:this is the longest bridge that i have ever seen 這是我曾經看最長的橋

the adjest常與one of連用
ex:it is one of the most interesting book I have ever read  
ps:
he is
 the tallest student in our class 
=
adjer than [any other 單n|all the other 複n]
ex:he is taller than [any other student|all the other students] in the class 他是班上最高的學生
= no other [單n接is|複n接are] [adjer than|so adj as]
ex:no other students in the class are [taller than|so tall as] he 他是班上最高的學生

the least +[adj] 最不...
ex:The exam was the least difficult of all  

最不可能的,the last n [to v|that s v]
ex:i am the last man to tell a lie 我絕不說謊

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其他補充:比較級慣用語

nothing more than = only(僅)
no less than = as [much|many] as(與...同樣多)
not more than = at most(至多)
ex:the man has not more than 20 dollars 這個人最多只有二十塊錢
ex:this friends is ,at most , a peron for chatting這個朋友最多也不過是個聊天的對象

not less than = at least(至少)
ex:taiwan has not less than 20 million people 台灣至少有二千萬人
ex:we must at least try again 我們至少要再試一次

ps:
not in the least 一點也不
ex:his teacher is not in the least satisfied with his results他的老師一點也不滿意他的成績
ex:i do not believe you in the least 我一點也不相信你

from bad to worse(愈來愈糟)
grow older(逐漸長大)


參考資料:
各大英文書藉與網路資料..等

2008-07-17 16:48:29發表   


 


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