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an adverb(副詞)

簡介
用法:
     修飾動詞 ex:they sang loudly他們大聲地唱歌
     修飾形容詞 ex:this book is very interesting 這本書很有趣味
     修飾副詞 ex:you speak english very well 你的英語講得很棒
     修飾全句 ex:fortunately,the rain stopped when we left很幸運地,當我們動身離開時,雨停了
副詞變化:
     形容詞變副詞
     副詞變比較級與最高級
簡單副詞有:
     頻率副詞 ex:always,usually,sometimes,often,...
     程度副詞 ex:very,much,too,so,enough,...
     情狀副詞 ex:slowly,carefully,...
     地方副詞 ex:here,there,home,upstairs,...
     時間副詞 ex:now,then,today,yesterday,...
其他的副詞有:
     疑問副詞 ex:when,where,why,how
     關係副詞
補充:
     容易混淆的副詞
     相關片語

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副詞變化
形容詞變副詞
基本規則:
     adj > adj+ly ,ex:kind > kindly
若遇特定子尾則有不同的變化,像是
     le > ly ,ex:possible > possibly
     子音y > 子音ily ,ex:happy > happily
     ll > lly ,ex:full > fully
     ue > uly ,ex:true>truly
注意:副詞與形容詞同形的有:early(早),late(遲),hard(努力),fast(快速的)
ps:
以ly結尾adj就沒有副詞的形式 ,ex:friendly,likely,lonely
名詞變形容詞方法:n+ly > adj ,ex:friend > friendly
名詞變副詞方法:with+n=adv

副詞變比較級和最高級
大多數情狀副詞與少數時間副詞和程度副詞,可和adj一樣形成比較級與最高級且規則相同
比較級: adver than
ex:mary sings much better than helen 瑪麗唱得比海倫好
ex:he runs faster than i 他跑得比我快
最高級: advest ,注意:最高級副詞前不加the
ex:john works most carefully of all 全體中約翰工作最細心
ps:
far副詞比較級farther/further與最高級farthest/furthest可比較物理距離,
但只有further和furthest可比較非物理的距離,常解釋為更多,其他等意思

ex: he ran farther/further than his friend did
ex:do you have any further question ? 你有更進一步的問題嗎
ex:he needs further information 他需要另外的資訊

ps
原級句型有:as..as(與...什麼一樣),not as...as(不如),詳見形容詞

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簡單副詞:
1頻率副詞
如:always,usually,often,sometimes,seldom,nearly幾乎,hardly幾乎不,...
通常在bev或助v後,一般v前,也可放句首加強語氣
ex:my younger brother hardly follows the traffic rules 我弟弟幾乎不遵守交通規則
ex:they were so tired that they could hardly walk 他們累到幾乎走不動了
ex:i have never heard this song 我從未聽過這首歌
ex:i am always busy 我一直很忙

2程度副詞
如:very,much,too,so,quite相當,rather相當,pretty非常,highly高度地,....
通常放在修飾語(adj,adv)之前
ex:he is too young 他太年輕
ex:don't speak so fast 不要說得太快

注意:enough須放在修飾語之後
ex:he is old enough to understand it 他年紀夠大可以了解它了
3情狀副詞
如:adj+ly(佔大部份),well,hard,fast,...
通常放句尾,但adj+ly可放在動詞之前或之後,但在bev或助v後
用來說明狀態,情況,性質的副詞,主要修飾動詞
ex:she speaks well 她說得不錯
ex:she sepaks english well 她英語說得不錯
ex:we supported him warmly 我們熱烈地支持他
ex:the baby slept soundly 這嬰兒睡得很熟
ex:he wrote a letter carefully = he carefully wrote a letter

4地方副詞
如:here,there那裡,home在家,upstairs在樓上,downstairs在樓下,abroad在國外,downtown市中心
通常放在所修飾的動詞後,而且不加介系詞
ex:come here 來這裡
ex: let's go home 我們回家吧

5時間副詞
如:today,tomorrow,yesterday,next~,last~,this~,~ago,~before,shortly立刻,lately=currently=recently最近
通常放句尾且不加介系詞,但加強語氣可放句首
ex:he came last night 他昨晚來過
ex:i went to see him yesterday = yesterday i went to see him 昨天我去看他
ex:this dispute has started quite lately 這爭執是最近才開始的(有lately要用完成式)
ex:the train was fifteen minutes late 火車慢了15分鐘
ex:see you later 稍後見

注意事項
1副詞依狀態,地方,時間排列,若相同在依小單位,大單位排列
ex: she sang beautifully at the party last night 她昨晚在宴會中唱得很好
ex:he lives in a small village in taiwan 他住在台南鄉下的一個小村莊裡

2連綴動詞後不可接adv,連綴動詞有be,seem/appear,look,feel,sound,taste,smell,become/get/grow/turn
ex:the music sounds too loud 音樂聲音太大了(不可用loudly)

疑問副詞
只有when,where,why,how
how和adj或adv連用可構成以下片語
how [many|much](有多少),how long(有多久時間),how soon(再過多久),how far(有多遠)
how often(隔多久),how old(年紀多大),how [tall|high](多高),how wide(多寬),how deep(多深)
ex:how often does he come here ? 他每隔多久才來一次
ex:how soon will he come back ? 再過多久他會回來
ex:how long did you stay here ? 你在此地停留多久時間

ps:how many years(問多少歲)

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易混淆副詞

長很像的有:
hard(努力地),ps:rain hard(下大雨),study hard(努力用功)
hardly(幾乎不),ex:i can hardly believe it 我簡直不能相信
late(遲),ex:he sat up late last night 他昨晚很晚睡
lately(最近地),ex:i haven't see him lately 最近我沒有看到他
near(靠近),ex:he sat near me 他坐在我旁邊
nearly(幾乎),ex:he was nearly drowned 他差點被淹死
high(高),ex:we felw high in the sky 我們在高空飛行
highly(很),ex:it is a highly amusing film 這是一部很有趣的影片
short(突然地),ex:the bus stopped short 公車突然煞車
shortly(不久),ex:he will arrive shortly 他不久就會到達

長的不像有:
already,ex:i have already done it 我已經做好了
yet(尚未),ex:i haven't done it yet 我還沒做好(用於疑問或否定句)
ago(從現在算起),ex:i met her two weeks ago 我兩週前遇過她
before(從過去算起),ex:he said he had met her two weeks before 他說他在兩週前曾遇過他
so(也),ex:i can swim,and so can he 我會游泳,他也會
nor/neither(也不),ex:he doesn't like flowers,and [nor|neither] does she 他不喜歡花,她也不喜歡

very,much比較
very可修飾現在分詞,原級
ex:it is a very interesting book
ex:she is very pretty她很美

much可修飾過去分詞,比較級,敘述形容詞(asleep,aware,afraid,awake,alike,alone,...)
ex:he was much puzzled with it 他對它感到很困惑
ex:she is much prettier than her sister 她比她的姐姐美得多
ex:the two girls look much alike 這兩個女孩看起來很像

加the可修飾最高級但用法不同
ex:he is [the very|much the] most diligent boy他是最用功的學生
 

關於sometimes
sometimes(有時候,=now and then,once in a while),
ex:sometimes he comes by train 有時候他搭火車來
sometime(某一個時候),ex:i will speak to him about it sometime 我將找個時間和他談此事
some times(好幾次=serveral times),ex:he has been to hong kong some times 他曾到香港好幾次
some time(一段時間),ex:he has been away for some time 他不在此地已有一段時日了

關於alike
ex:we think alike 我們想法相似
ex:they look alike 他們看起來相似
ex:my pen and your pen are alike 我的筆和你的筆相似

ps:
like在介詞表示像
ex:she looks like her sister她看起來像她姐
ex:it looks like rain 看起來快下雨
ex:that smells like cake 那聞起來像蛋糕 

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相關片語
for good永久地=forever=permanently
put off延期=postpone
first(首先,第一)=firstly=to begin with,(解決方案,方法,表列形式或第一時)
ex:first, i don't like the design of this ring;secondly,i can't afford it 第一,我不喜歡這個戒指的設計,其次,我買不起這個戒指
ex:he wants to introduce himself first 首先他想要自我介紹
ex:he stood first in order to show his loyalty in the public 他先站起來以便在眾人面前顯示他的忠貞

at first 起初地=at the beginning of...,(一開始的定點時間用)
ex:at first ,i didn't intend to buy this camera 起初我並沒有打算要買這台相機
ex:he didn't plan to go abroad for further studies at first 他起初並沒有計劃要出國深造

for the first time 初次地,(第一次見面或第一次嘗次用)
ex:you don't have to talk too much when you meet anybody for the first time 當你初次遇到任何人時,你不需要講太多話
ex:for the first time in my life i got palpitations 有生以來,我初次嘗到心律不整的感覺
ex:this old lady took an airplane for the first time in her life 這位老婦人有生以來第一次搭飛機


 

參考資料:各大文法書藉與網路資料

2008-07-17 16:49:03發表   


 


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