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a verb(動詞)

簡介
動詞種類
 及物動詞:含授與動詞,使役動詞,感官動詞
 不及物動詞:含連綴動詞
單複動詞
 單數動詞有:動詞+s,is,was,has,...等
 複數動詞有:are,were,have,...等
動詞變化
 規則動詞:原形+ed
 不規則動詞:死背吧
 動詞變ing形:原形+ing
需要注意的動詞:have,get,do,take,keep,leave,be


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及物動詞vt:
1須接受詞的動詞
ex:i haven't answered his letter 我還沒回信給他
2分以下兩種
complete(完全)vt:沒有受詞補語也能表達完整句子的vt

包含授與動詞
ex:i have a bicycle 我有一部腳踏車
incomplete(不完全)vt:需要受詞補語,整個句子才會完整的vt
包含使役動詞與感官動詞
ex:everybody called him a hero 每個人稱他為英雄

不及物動詞vi:
1後接介詞才可接受詞的動詞
ex:i haven't replied to his letter我還沒回信給他
2分為以下兩種
complete(完全)vi:沒有主詞補語也能表達完整句子的vi
ex:the moon rose 月亮升起來了
incomplete(不完全)vi:需要主詞補語,整個句子才會完整的vi
也等於
連綴動詞
ex:he became a teacher 他做了教師


連綴動詞linking verbs
也就是不完全vi,後接主詞補語,常用的有下列
be,keep,lie,stand,remain,seem,look,appear,become,grow,get,turn,make
feel,sound,taste,smell

授與動詞dative verb
說明:需要do(direct object直接受詞)與io(indirect object間接受詞)的vt,而do為人,io為物
句型1:s+vt+do+io=s+vt+io+to/for/of/on+do
ex:i gave him a book = i gave a book to him 我給他一本書
主要授與動詞有以下:
用to:give,lend,sned,write,bring,hand,pass,deliver,show,teach,tell,sell,pay,owe,do,promise,offer
用for:buy,bring,get,leave,make,do        用of:ask          用on:play

使役動詞:
表示"使...作..."的意思,常見的有以下幾種
  let有"使...自由地..."的意味
  make有"指使...作..."的強制意味
  have有"要...去做..."之準備或計畫的感覺
  get 表示"要...去...","要...做...","說服...去..."等意思,表主動後需接to+v
  help與bid表示"人幫...做..."
用法:句型結構為 s+使役v+受詞+oc ,受詞補語oc可以是v,ving,pp,n,adj
  句型1,s+使役v+o+[n|adj],oc為n或adj
 ex:she made me an artist  她使我成為一位藝術家
 ex:the medicine made the patient more comfortable 這個藥使得病人較舒服些

  句型2,s+使役v+O+[v|ving],表主動,受詞o為人時oc常為[v|ving]
 have  
 ex:i have him [do|doing] my work
 
let
 ex:you had better not let him suffer from the pain 你最好不要讓他遭遇這樣的痛苦
 ex:let me go! 讓我走吧
 made
 ex:he made me tell the truth 他叫我說實說
 ex:they made the statues in the temples drink wine as they wished  他們令廟裡的雕像隨心所欲地喝酒
 bade
 ex:she bade them get out of her room 她命令他們離開她的房間
 ex:the king bade them leave 國王吩咐他們離開
 若v為get,want,則oc改to+v
 ex:i'll get them to try it again 我要叫他們再試一次
 ex:i want you to do it at once 我要你立刻做那件事

  句型3,s+使役v+O+pp,表被動,受詞o為物時oc常為pp
 have 
 ex:i [have|get] my car checked 我把車子給人檢查
 ex:i had my car washed 我叫人洗我的車
 let
 ex:he lets the soup cooked in the pot 他在鍋子裡煮湯
 ex:let it be done at once 馬上把它做好(若為被動語態祈使句且使役v=let則oc要改be+pp)
 get,want
 ex:he got his watch repaired 他把錶給人修理
 ex:i want this work finished by friday 我希望這工作在星期五前做好
 受詞為人但想表達被動語態
 ex:the spy made the president murdered 這個間諜使總統被謀殺
 

感官動詞:
表知覺的動詞,有see, look, watch, listen, hear, listen,sound, taste, smell, feel,notice,...等
用法:句型結構為 s+感官v+受詞+oc ,受詞補語oc可以是v,ving,pp
oc為v表主動事實
 ex:i saw him cross the street 我看到他横越馬路
 ex:i heard someone call my name我聽到有人叫我的名字

oc為ving表主動進行
 ex:i watched many children playing in the park 我看到很多小孩在公園玩
 ex:he felt his heart beating fast 他覺得心跳的好快

oc為pp表被動
 ex:i heard my name called 我聽到有人在叫我的名字
 
ps:感官或使役動詞用於被動式後面須加to
句型:s be 使役感官pp to+v
ex:she was seen to enter this room last night 昨晚有人看見她進入這房間
ex:he was made to go 他被迫而走


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動詞3單變化:
若修飾的主詞為第三人稱單數,則使用單數動詞
常見單v有:動詞+s,is,was,has,...等
常見複v有:are,were,have,...等
ps:接s規則同名詞複數要接s的規則

主詞為下列須接單v
1 . 不可數名詞(距離,時間,價值,重量等抽象,物質名詞)
2 . ving,tov,名詞子句
3 . [no|each|every|many a] n and ([no|each|every|many a] ) n
  ex:many a boy and many a girl has made the same mistake 許多男女孩子犯了同樣的錯誤
4 . ~one,~body,~thing
 ex:someone is knocking at the door 有人在敲門
6 . the number of 複n(~的數目)
7 . the only one of 複n that 單v
 ex:sam is the only one of the students that is absent 山姆是唯一缺席的學生

主詞為下列須接複v
1 . 可數之集合名詞,ex:the police警方,people人們,cattle牛群,poultry
2 . a number of 複n (許多的)
3 . one of the 複n that 複v
  ex:sam is one of the students who are absent 山姆是缺席的學生之一
4 . both a and b 複v
5 . both of [n|pron] 複v

不同單複v有不同的意思
1 . n and n +單v=同一人物或觀念  +複v=不同人物或觀念
 ex:a poet and novelist has visited our school 一位詩人兼小說家參觀我們的學校
 ex:a poet and novelist have visited our school 一位詩人和一位小說參觀我們的學校
2 . 集合名詞(ex:class,family,audience,committee...) +單v=表整體  +複v=表個體
 ex:my class was very small 我的班是小班
 ex:my class were moved 我班的學生受到感動
3 . the adj +單v=表抽象  +複v=表該類全體
 ex:the beautiful is the true 美就是真(the beautiful = beauty)
 ex:the rich are not always happy 有錢的人未必是快樂的(the rich=rich people)

4 . all +單v=表事物  +複v=表人
 ex:all is lost 一切都失掉了
 ex:all of it was lost 它的一切都失掉了
 ex:all of us are happy 我們都快樂

補充,以下可後接of+[單n+單v|複n+複v]
most大部份,halt一半,part一部分,some一些,the rest(其餘),the majority(大多數),a lot(許多),plenty(許多)

1 . 以下須以b決定後接單或複v
either a or b(不是a就是b),neither a nor b(不是a也不是b),not only a but also b(不只a而且b)
2 . 以下須以a決定後接單或複v
a [with|besides|but|together with與|along with與|as well as跟|no less than和] b

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過去分詞 
用法1.主動語態轉變動語態
原則: 
 1.受詞o(或io) 變 主詞s
 2.主詞s 變 by+受詞o(特定動詞可不用by)
 3.vt 變 be+PP 
其他規則:
 使役或感官動詞要把s省略

一般情況下動詞不能vi(不及物動詞)
ex:he mailed the letter / the letter was mailed by him
ex:an accident happened / 無被動 

常用的vi有
 agree,appear,arrive
 become,come,die,exist,go,happen,occur,talk
 fall,flow 
 laugh,live
 rain,rise
 seem,sit,sleep,sneeze,stand,stay
 walk,wait 

常用被動式的有
be convinced that相信,be written by被寫,be make to被迫,be referred to as被稱為
it is believed that大家相信,make oneself understood使人了解自己的話,find oneself pp發現自己陷於
is located in位於,be known as以...而著名,it is compared with比較...
be seated坐
不可用被動式的有
happen,take place(發生),break out(爆發)

不同時態的被動語法
簡單式(現在,過去,未來):
 主動:[shall|will|be going to| ]+ v / 被動:[shall|will|be going to| ]+ be pp
 ex:He writes novels / Novels be written by him
 ex:He broke the glass / The glass was broke by him
 ex:He will give a speech / A speech will be given by him
 ex:He is going to buy the car / The car is going to be bought by him
 
進行式(現在,過去):
 主動:be ving / 被動:be being pp 
 ex: He is making a cake / A cake is being made by him
 ex: He was hitting it / It was being hit by him

完成式(現在,過去,未來):
 主動:have pp / 被動:[[shall|will]+ have] been pp
 ex:He has mailed the letter / The letter has been mailed by him
 ex:He had cleaned the room / The room had been cleaned by him 

疑問句被動
以do為首的疑問句 
 主動:[does|do|did]+s+v+o / 被動: be+s+pp+o
 ex:Does he write novels? / Are novels written by him
 ex:Did he break the glass? / Was the glass broken by him

非以do為首的疑問句
 主動:助+s+v+o / 被動: 助+s+[be pp|being pp|been pp]+o
 ex:Will he give a speech? / Will a seech be given by him
 ex:Is he going to buy the car? / Is he going to be bought the car
 ex:Is he making a cake? / Is a cake being made by him 
 ex:Was he hitting it? / Was it being hit by him
 ex:Has he mailed the letter? / Has the letter been mailed by him
 ex:Had he cleaned the room? / Had the room been cleaned by him 

以疑問詞為首的問句 
 主動:w* v o / 被動: by w*m be o pp
 ex;who wrote the letter? / by whom was the letter written ?  

啟使句被動
原v o = let o be+pp
ex:do it at once 立刻做它
=let it be done at once

...

主動轉被動依動詞的不同分:
v為授與動詞如give,lend,show,tell,teach,write...
s v io do 改被動= io be+pp do by s = do be+pp (to) io by s
ex:he gave me a book 他給我一本書
=i was given a book by him
= a book was given (to) me by him

v為不完全及物動詞如call,elect,choose,appoint...
s v o oc 改被動=o be+pp oc by s
ex:we elected him chairman
= he was elected chairman by us

v為感官動詞如watch,see,hear,或使役動詞如make,注意,原先s會消失
s v o 原v= o be+pp to 原v
ex:i saw him enter the room 我看見他走進這房間
= he was seen to enter the room

... 

省略by時機
主詞為people,thye,you,we,somebody等含糊的表示人,則by+某人可省略
ex:somebody stole my money 有人偷了我的錢
= my money was stolen (by somebody)

必需換掉by時機,不同pp接不同介係詞
with:acquainted認識,covered覆蓋,equipped裝備,pleased,satisfied,decorate裝飾
ex:the mountain is covered with snow 山被雪所覆蓋
at:disappointed,excited,surprised,laughed
ex:i was surprised at the news 這消息使我吃驚
in:dressed穿~衣服,interested
ex:he is interested in music 他對音樂感興趣
to:devoted獻身於,known為~所知,married結婚,reduce減少
ex:she is known to everybody 她為人人所知
for:mistaked被誤認為是...
on:strike(被火柴畫著)

ps
a be made into b,被動,a被製成b(經魔法或特殊技巧處理)
ex:the prince has been made into a dove by the witches' magic power 這個王子己被這些女巫們的魔法變成鴿子
ex:the cloth is made into a fancy skirt 這塊布被做成一條華麗的裙子

a be made from b ,被動,a由b組成(經化學變化)
ex:the shampoo is made from natural products 這洗髮精是由天然成份製成的
a [be composed of|be made up of] b ,被動,a由b組成(一般組成)
ex:the house is made up of logs 這房子由原木做的
ex:water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen水是由氫氧組成

a [contain|consist of] b,主動,a由b組成(一般組成)
ex:the tea contains varities of chinese herbs and ginger這茶包含了多樣的中國藥草和薑
ex:the song consists of beautiful melody and touching words這首歌是由美麗的旋律和感人的歌詞所組成

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過去分詞 
用法2:狀態性被動的形容詞

表示某人的狀態...,用來補充或說明主詞 
人 + be + pp
ex:he is married
ex:he is tired

部份pp後需接特定介系詞才可加動詞,常見的有以下
 with: acquainted,crowded,done(結束),finished,pleased,satisfied
 to:devoted(致力於),engaged(訂婚),married,opposed(反對),related(有關聯),supposed(預期)
 ex:he is married to Marry  
 ex:he is supposed to call me tomorrow
 from: divorced,exhausted(精疲力盡),gone(不見),
 in:located(位於),intrested
 ex:He is interested in art 
 on:drunk(喝醉)
 of:composed(組成),made(被做成) 
 about:excited,worried
 ex:he was excited about the game
 for:prepared(準備好),qualified(符合資格)
 ex:he will be prepared for the exam
部份可多個介詞,常見的有以下 
 disappointed [in|with],involved [in|with]
 ex:i am disappointed in(或with) her 我對她很失望 
 tired [of|from], bored [with|by] 
 scared [of|by],terrified [of|by],frightened [of|by](受驚的) 

其他用於情緒的pp,常見的有以下 
 高興類:amused(愉快的),delighted高興的,interested,
 驚訝類:amazed吃驚的,astonished驚訝的,startled受驚嚇的,surprised
 ex:he was surprised 

 

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動詞變化:
動詞因時態的不同,而有原形/過去式/過去分詞三種變化,除此之外還可變成ing型做現在分詞或動名詞

規則變化
動詞原形+ed即可變成過去式與過去分詞,但遇到下列情況則有所不同

情況
動作
ex:原形
ex:過去式
ex:過去分詞
字尾為e 字尾+d like liked liked
字尾為c 加k+ed picnic
picnicked
picnicked
字尾為子音+y 去y+ied cry
cried
cried
單音節動詞
字尾為短母音+子音
重覆字尾+ed beg
begged
begged
多音節動詞
字尾為子音+母音+子音
重覆字尾+ed control
controlled
controlled

不規則變化
以下是常用的不規則動詞
    aab:
beat beat beaten 打
    ab:只有原形和過去式
shall/should , will/would , can/could , may/might
    aba:原形和過去分詞相同
run/ran/run 跑    come/came/come 來    become/became/become 變得    overcome/overcame/overcame 克服
    aaa:無變化
bet(賭),burst(突然發生),cost(值),cut(切),cast(投擲),hit(打),hurt(傷害),let(讓),put(放),upset(推翻)
set(設置),shed(流出),shut(關),spit(吐出),split(裂開),spread(展開)
ps:音標有變:read(讀),bid(吩咐)

    abb:原形/過去式和過去分詞
aught    catch/caught(捕),teach/taught(教)
ought    fight/fought(打仗),buy/bought(買),bring/brought(帶來),think/thought想,seek/sought(尋求)
d>t     build/built建造,lend/lent(借),rend/rent(分裂),send/sent寄,bend/bent(彎),spend/spent(花費)
ep>pt    keep/kept(保持),weep/wept(哭),sleep/slept(睡),sweep/swept(掃),creep/crept(爬行)
el>lt     feel/felt(感覺),kneel/knelt(跪)
l>t    smell/smelt(聞),spell/spelt(拼字)
ee>e    meet/met(遇),feed/fed(飼),bleed/bled(流血),breed/bred(養育)
in> un     swing/swung(搖擺),sting/stung(刺),hang/hung(吊掛),spin/spun(紡)
ound    bind/bound(綑),gring/ground(磨),wind/wound(捲),find/found(發現)
去y+id型    say/said(說),lay/laid(放置),pay/paid(付款)
old    sell/sold(賣),tell/told(告訢)
ood    stand/stood(站),understand/understood(了解)
uck    stick/stuck(黏),strike/struck(打)
ot    get/got(得),shoot/shot(射)
其他
hear/heard聽,  lead/led領導 , leave/left離開
sit/sat(坐), dig/dug(挖掘) , win/won(贏) ,shine/shone(照耀), hold/held(握) , lose/lost(失) , flee/fled(逃),make/made(做)
deal/dealt(處理),mean/meant(意指)
ps:易混淆的動詞有
shine/shone(照耀) ,相似有shine/shined(擦亮),為規則動詞
hang/hung(吊掛),相似有hang/hanged(絞死),為規則動詞
find/found(發現),相似有found/founded(建立),為規則動詞
wind/wound(捲) ,相似有wound/wounded (傷害),為規則動詞

    abc:原形/過去式/過去分詞
sing/sang/sung唱
 ring/rang/rung鳴 spring/sprang/sprung跳  drink/drank/drunk飲
swim/swam/swum泳游  begin/began/begun開始    
 ride/rode/ridden騎  write/wrote/written寫    
 bite/bit/bitten咬  hide/hid/hidden躲藏    
 forget/forgot/forgotten忘記      
 bear/bore/born忍  tear/tore/torn撕 wear/wore/worn穿戴  swear/swore/sworn發誓
 take/took/taken取  mistake/mistook/mistaken誤會 shake/shook/shaken搖動  
 know/knew/known知  grow/grew/grown生長 blow/blew/blowm吹  throw/threw/thrown投
 draw/drew/drawn畫,拉      
 rise/rose/risen升起  drive/drove/driven駕駛 strive/strove/striven奮鬥  
 give/gave/given給  forgive/forgave/forgiven寬恕    
 speak/spoke/spoken說話  break/broke/broken破    
 choose/chose/chosen選  freeze/froze/frozen凍 weave/wove/woven織  
 steal/stole/stolen偷      
 see/saw/seen看  show/showed/shown 顯示  eat/ate/eaten吃  
 go/went/gone  do/did/done做  fall/foll/fallen落  
ps:易混淆的動詞有
lie/lay/lain 躺 ,相似有lie/lied/lied說謊,為規則動詞
fly/flew/flown飛 ,相似有flow/flowed/flowed流,為規則動詞

ing形
在原形動詞後加ing即可變成現在分詞/動名詞之ing形
ex:see > seeing ,study > studying
但以下情況例外:
無聲字尾e ,去e+ing
ex:make making
字尾ie ,去ie+ying 
ex:die dying ,lie lying
字尾c ,後接king 
ex:panic panicking
字尾為1母音+1子音 , 重覆字尾+ing 
ex:get getting





參考資料:各大文法書與網路資料

2008-07-17 16:49:19發表   


 


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