回簡易網誌列表
a noun(名詞)

簡介
 名稱的種類有:
    countable nouns(可數名詞):普通名詞,集合名詞
    uncountable nouns(不可數名詞):物質名詞,抽像名詞,專有名詞 
 singular(單數名詞)變plural(複數名詞)的方法
    字尾是s,x,z,ch,sh  >  後接es
    字尾是子音+o > 後接es
    字尾是子音+y > 去y加ies
    字尾是f或fe > 去掉f或fe加ves
 抽象名詞用法:
    adj = of+抽像名詞
    adv = [with|in|by|on]+(great/much)+ 抽像名詞
 名詞所有格應注意:
    名語變所有格的方法
    所有格後名詞省略時機
    雙重所有格使用時機
   
....................................................................................................................

名詞種類:


可數名詞
 普通名詞,ex:house,man,tool
 集合名詞,普通名詞的集合(單複意義不同),ex:class,family,people
ps:
易混淆的可數名詞:tears,animals,problems,meals

不可數名詞,
1前面不能直接加a或an ex:a furniture是錯誤的
2沒有複數形 ex:furnitures是錯誤的
3不能計量 ex:one furniture 是錯誤的
4動詞都用單數  
可在分為以下
 物質名詞,實體但無固定形狀,如材料,食物,化學元素,總類等
  ex:baggage行李,luggage行李,bread,milk,meat,money,equipment,furniture
 抽像名詞,非實體但可感受到
  ex:accommodation住宿,damage損害,fun,information,percent百分比,progress,traffic,time,work,advice
  behavior,chaos混亂,luck,news,permission允許,proportion比例,scenery風景,trouble,weather

 專有名詞(第一個字母須大寫),如
  學科課程,地名,人名,語言,國藉,宗教名等,ex:Taipei
  頭銜或稱謂:ex:docter=醫生(職業),Docter=博士(頭銜)
  月,禮拜一到日,節日(但季節不大寫) ex:
Monday 
  標題,書名,電影名


ps:各學科單字(皆為不可數)
English英文,Mathematics數學,Statistics統計學,Economics經濟學
Bihistory歷史,Philosophy哲學,Politics政治學,Civics公民課
Music音樂,Physics物理學,Mechanics力學,Chemistry化學
Biology生物學,Genetics遺傳學,Geology地質學,Geography地理學


ps:
同時可數與不可數名詞
voice
可數=聲音,不可數=發言
chicken可數=,不可數=雞肉
fish可數=魚,不可數=魚肉
glass可數=
玻璃杯,不可數=玻璃
hair可數=毛,不可數=頭髮
iron可數=熨斗,不可數=鐵
light可數=燈,不可數=光
paper可數=報告或報紙,不可數=紙張
time可數=次數,不可數=時間
work可數=作品,不可數=工作
coffee可數=咖啡杯,不可數=咖啡
experience可數=經歷,不可數=經驗 
cake
fruit
vegetable  

ps:
every為單數名詞,everyone和everybody為數複名詞
ex:every student is smart 每一位學生都是聰明的
ex:everybody/everyone are smart 所有人都是聰明的
person為單數名詞,people為複數名詞

 

...................................................................................................................

可數名詞變複數:
名詞後接s即可變複數  ex:book>books,pen>pens,boy>boys
但若遇以下狀況則有不同
1
字尾是s,x,z,ch,sh  >  後接es 
ex:bus>buses,box>boxes, dish>dishes, match>matches,class>classes
  例外:stomach>stomachs
2
字尾是子音+o > 後接es 
ex:hero>heroes, potato>potatoes, tomato>tomatoes,echo>echoes
  例外:piano>pianos
3
字尾是子音+y > 去y加ies 
 ex:baby>babies,city>cities
4
字尾是f或fe > 去掉f或fe加ves 
ex:knife>knives,leaf>leaves
  例外:roof>roofs,chief>chiefs,handkerchief>handkerchiefs
5
其他不規則的變化,分類如下:
改變母音的字
ex:mouse > mice
man>men,woman>women
foot>feet,goose>geese(鵝),tooth>teeth(牙齒)

字尾加en或ren
ex:ox>oxen(牛),child>children
單複同形
deer(鹿),sheep(羊),cattle(牛),chinese(中國人),clothes(衣服),fish,offspring,species

複合名詞變複數:
1主要字改複數
ex:passer-by>passers-by(過路人),father-in-law>fathers-in-law(岳父),son-in-law>sons-in-law(女婿),maid-servant>maid-servants(女僕)
2前後兩句改複數
ex:man-servant>men-servants(男僕),woman-servant>women-servants(女僕)
3名詞1做adj,名詞2改複數
ex:potato chip>potato chips(馬鈴薯片),computer terminal>computer terminals(電腦終端機)

ps:數字-單數名詞,可做形容詞,格式見形容詞

...................................................................................................................

抽像名詞
1 . adj = of+抽像名詞
 ex:he is a [man of learning|learned man] 他是一個有學問的人
 ex:The proposals they put forward at the meeting were of little significance. 他們在會上提出的建議無足輕重。

2 . not+adj = of+no+抽像名詞
 ex:his suggestion was [not useful|of no use] 他的建議沒有用處
3 . very+adj = of+great+抽像名詞 = all+抽像名詞 = 抽像名詞+itself
 ex:the book is [very useful|of great use|all use|use itself] 這本書很有用
4 . adv = [with|in|by|on]+(great/much) + 抽像名詞
 ex:you do everything [carefully|with care] 你小心地做每件事
ps:常見adv與抽象名詞
with care=carefully , with calmness=calmly , with diligence=diligently
with ease=easily , with fairness=fairly , with difficult=difficultly
with patience=patiently , with politeness=politely , with fluence=fluently
in amazement = amazedly , in despair = desparingly , in earnest=earnestly
in fact=really , in person=personally , in private=privately
in public=publicly , in time=early enough to , in triumph=triumphantly
in wonder=wonderfully
by accident=by chance=accidentally
on time=punctually

...................................................................................................................

名詞的所有格
此部份可和代名詞一起看

有生命名詞變所有格
可用以表價格,距離,時間,重量(ps:所有格後接名詞)
方法名詞後接 's:
  ex:helen's doctor 海倫的醫生,children's toy 小孩的玩具,ex:my fater-in-law's car 我岳父的車
若名詞後有s則接 ':
  ex:ladies' hats 女用帽子
ps:需注意共同所有和各別所有
a and b+'s 是共同所有 ex:helen and mary's school (同一間學校)
a's and b's 是各別所有 ex:helen's and mary's school (不同間學校)
無生命名詞變所有格
格式:the+所有物  of+[the|that|my...]+所有者
ex:the door of this classroom 這間教室的門
ex:the leaves of that tree 那棵樹的葉子
ex:the name of our school 我們學校的名字

ps:其他不好理解的有
heaven's will天意 , to one's heart's content心滿意足 , at one's wit's end 不知所措

所有格後面名詞省略時機
1,同樣的名詞出現不只一次時,要避免重複
ex:the truck is john's (truck) 這部卡車是約翰的(省略truck)
ex:tom's (family) is a big family 湯姆的家是個大家庭(省略family)

2,後面有store,shop,house,hospital,church
ex:he is staying at his uncle's (house) 他暫住在他伯父家(省略house)

雙重所有格使用時機
當限定詞與(代)名詞所有格,同時修飾名詞時
雙重所有格:限定詞+n+of+代名詞所有格(詳見所有代名詞)
ex:he is a friend of my brother's 他是我兄弟的朋友
!= he is my brother's a friend 錯誤用法
!= he is a my brother's friend 錯誤用法


...................................................................................................................

 
不可數名詞的數量單位
cup(熱)杯 ex:a cup of [tea|coffee|...]
glass(冷)杯 ex:a glass of [water|juice|milk|...]
bottle瓶 ex:a bottle of [vinegar|soy sauce|water|olive oil|...]
bowl碗 ex:a bowl of [soup|sugar|...]
piece片,件 ex:a piece of [sushi|toast|cake|fruit|chocolate|paper|news|advice|furniture|bread|cloth|...]
ex:a desk is a piece of furniture 桌子是一件傢俱
slice切片(可用刀切的) ex:a slice of [pizza|cheesecake|bread|...]
cake塊 ex:a cake of 
sheet一張一片 ex:a sheet of 
pair一副 ex:a pair(s) of [shoe|glasses|socks|scissors(剪刀)] 
ex:i want a pair of glasses 我要一副眼鏡 
loaf條  ex:a loaf of bread
jar罈 ex:a jar of [jam|coffee|honey|...]  
can罐 ex:a can of [tomatoes|tuna fish|soda|...]
couple ex:a couple of
bag袋 ex:a bag of [pasta|potato chips|salad|rice|...]
bunch捆 ex:a bunch of [grapes|bananas|...]
box箱 ex:a box of [chocolates|cereal|...] 
carton盒裝 ex:a carton of [milk|fruit juice|ice-cream|eggs|...]
ps:
a可換two,three...
ex:i have three pairs of shoes 我有三雙鞋子

 

參考資料:各大文法書與網路資料

2008-07-17 16:49:38發表   


 


  登入      [牛的大腦] | [單字我朋友] Powered by systw.net