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a gerund(動名詞)

簡介
動名詞是可以表達動作的名詞
用途:做主詞,補語,受詞,...等
動名詞時式與語態的組合有:
    簡單式與主動語態(ving)
    簡單式與被動語態(being pp)
    完成式與主動語態(having pp)
    完成式與被動語態(having been pp)
需要特別注意的動詞:
    通常只接動名詞的動詞
    接動名詞或不定詞意義會不同的動詞
動名詞慣用語:
    後接動名詞,但也有其他句型可表達的慣用語
    通常只接動名詞的慣用語
    後有介詞省略,需接動名詞的慣用語
    慣用語有to,只能接動名詞的慣用語

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動名詞=原形動詞+ing,是可以表達動作的名詞
功用:
1做主詞,其後皆為單數動詞
 ex:reading books widens our knowledge 讀書增廣我們的知識
2做補語
 ex:teaching is learning 教學相長
3做受詞
 ex;he enjoys fishing 他喜歡釣魚
4做介系詞的受詞,句型有
  介係詞+ving
 ex:don't be afraid of speaking english 不要害怕說英文
 ex:it kept on raining 雨繼續下著

  介係詞+所有格+ving
 ex:thank you for your coming 謝謝你的光臨

注意:動名詞 vs 現在分詞
動名詞有名詞性質表功用,現在分詞有形容詞形質表狀態
 ex:a sleeping car(動名詞)  , a sleeping baby(現在分詞)
  = a car for sleeping , a baby who is sleeping
 ex:he likes walking(動名詞)  , he is walking(現在分詞)


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時式與語態的組合有:
簡單式與主動語態=ving
 ex:he insists [on his being|that he is] right 他堅持他是對的
 ex:i am sure [of his coming|that he will come]  我相信他會來

簡單式與被動語態=being pp
 ex:i don't like being treated like that 我不喜歡被人那樣對待
完成式與主動語態=having pp
 ex:she is ashamed [of having|that she has] done that 她做了那件事而感到慚愧
 ex:he denied [having known|that he had known] anything of our plan 他否認對我們的計畫有所知悉

完成式與被動語態=having been pp
 ex:i remember having been told the story 我記得曾聽過這故事

ps:
being常接的形容詞
 being late 晚到
 being disorganized 雜亂無章
 being lazy 懶惰
 being sloppy 散漫
 being argumentative 好辯
 being offensive 愛罵人
 not being flexible 死板 

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通常只接動名詞的動詞
常見的有
enjoy ex:I enjoy working  
finish ex:He finished studying at night 
quit ex:he quit smoking 
keep ex:keep working
consider ex:I am considering going to Taipei
discuss ex:they discussed getting a new house.  
avoid ex:i must avoid doing such a thing 我必須避免做如此的事
postpone延期 ex:never postpone writing the letter 這封信千萬不要延後寫
mind介意 ex:I don't mind going again 我不介意在去一次 
其他常見的還有
admit承認,appreciate感激,delay,deny否認,escape逃避, imagine想像,dislike,miss,practice練習
ps:
否定用法
ex: you considered not going to class 
 

 

接動名詞或不定詞意義會不同的動詞有
stop,forget,remeber,go on,...等,後接ving通常表己發生,後接to v通常表未發生或做不同事
ex:cease smoking!the teacher is coming!暫時不要抽煙,老師來了(暫時停止)
ex:the patient is so sick that ,eventually,he ceases to breathe這病人病得很重,終究他終於停止呼吸了(永久不再...)
ex:he stopped smoking 他戒煙了(停止做現在的事)
ex:he stopped to smoke 他停下來抽煙(停下來做另一件事)
ex:i forgot mailing your letter 我忘了我己將信寄出(己經做了,但忘了)
ex:i forgot to mail your letter 我忘了將你的信寄出(還沒做)
ex:i remembered mailing this letter 我記得我寄過這封信(己經做了)
ex:please remember to mail this letter 請記得將這封信寄出(還沒做,但要記得)
ex:he went on talking for two hours 他連續說了兩小時(一直做相同的事)
ex:after writing,he went on to read 寫完字後他接著讀書(做另一件事)


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以下為動名詞慣用語

後接動名詞,但也有其他句型可表達的有
1,can not+help+ving(不得不),=can't+but+原v
  ex:i can't help telling her the truth 我不得不把事實告訴她
   = i can't but tell her the truth

2.think of nothing but ving,desire nothing but to vrt (只想...)
  ex:she thinks of nothing but eating the pizza 她什麼都不想,只想吃批薩
  ex:she desires nothing but to marry the rich man! 她什麼都不想,只想嫁給有錢人!

3,there is no+ving(~是不可能的),=it is impossible to+v
  ex:there is no knowing what will happen 無法知道以後會發生什麼事
  = it is impossible to know what will happen

4,it is no use+ving(~是沒有用的),=it is of no use+to v=it is useless+to v
  ex:it is no use crying over spilt milk 覆水難收
  = it is of no use to cry over spilt milk

5,on+ving...,s+ved...(一...就...),=as soon as s+ved...,s+ved
  ex:on hearing the news,she wrote to him 她一聽到這消息,就寫信給他
  = as soon as she heard the news,she wrote to him

6,[do|would]+you+mind+[(所有格)+ving|if+子句](你介意...嗎?)
  ex:do you mind my opening the window? 你介意我把窗戶打開嗎?
  = do you mind if i open the window

7,物+be worth+ving(值得),=物+be worthy+[of being|to be]+pp
  ex:the book is worth reading 這本書值得一讀
  = the book is worthy [of being|to be] read

8,物+[need|want|require]+ving(某事物需(被)...),=物+[need|want|require]+to be+pp
  ex:this house needs repairing 這房子需要修理
  = this house needs to be repaired



通常只接動名詞的有
1,go+ving(去做...運動或較具娛樂性動作)
  ex:they go hiking on sundays
 ps:go sightseeing看景點,go skydiving 跳傘
2,[go on|keep on]+ving(繼續...)
  ex:let's go on dancing till the midnight 讓我們繼續跳舞到深夜吧
  ex:the curious student kept on asking questions 這位好奇的學生不斷地問問題

2,do [a lot of|a little]+ving(常做...)
  ex:although i am busy,i still do a little painting 雖然忙,我還是偶爾畫畫
  ex:he has done a lot of hunting recently 他最近常打獵

3,[how|what] about+ving(你以為...如何?)
  ex:how about going to the movings tonight? 今晚去看電影如何
4,[prevent|keep|stop]+人 from ving (阻止某人做某事)
  ex:the bad weather stopped us from climbing the mountain 惡劣的天氣使我們無法去爬那座山
  ex:what prevented you from coming ?什麼事使你無法來

5,feel like+ving(想要)
  ex:do you feel like taking a walk? 你想去散步嗎
6,prefer ving to ving (較喜歡而不喜歡)
  ex:i prefer reading to drinking 我比較喜歡讀書,而不喜歡喝酒
7,never...without ving (每...一定)
  ex:you must never cross the street without waiting for the light to turn green 你一定要等燈號轉綠才能過街
其他如succeed in(成功...),without(沒有...),burst out=burst into(突然...),it go without(不用...)
ex:she went out without saying goodbye to us 她沒有向我們道別就走了

ps:
只接動名詞的片語
put off ex:I put off doing my homework
think about ex:I am thinking about going to Taipei
talk about ex:I am talking about getting a new car

後有介詞省略,需接動詞詞的有
1,s+be busy(in)+ving(忙於)
 ex:he is busy doing his homework 他忙於做家庭作業
  = he is busy with his homework

2,s(人) spend [時間|金錢] (in) ving(某人將...花費在...),ving也可用on代替
 ex:he spent a lot of money buying books 他花了很多錢買書
 = he spent a lot of money on books

3,s+take turns (at) ving(輪流做)
 ex:on our way home,we took turns driving the car 在回家的途中,我們輪流開車
4,s+have+[difficulty|trouble|a hard time] (in) ving(有困難)
 ex:i had a hard time learning english 我學英語有點困難
5,s+have+[fun|a good time] (in) ving(很好玩)
 ex;we have fun playing tennis 我們打網球很有趣



習慣用法
人+[be|get|become]+[used|accustomed]+to,人正在習慣於
 ex:he is accustomed to staying up late 他習慣敖夜
 ex:i am used to sitting up late 我慣於熬夜
 ex:i am not used to making a speech in public 我不習慣在公眾場合演講
 ex:many people are used to writing e-mail to foreign friends 人們習慣了寫電子郵件給外國朋友
人+be+getting+[used|accustomed]+to 人正在漸漸習慣
 ex:I am getting used the cold weather there
ps:
(人 used to 原v),人過去習慣...(但現在已不這樣)
  ex:i used to sit up late我過去經常熬夜
  ex:i am not what i used to be 我己經不再是過去的我
(物 used to 原v)物過去曾經...(但現在已不這樣)
  ex:radio used to be most popular kind of home entertainment 收音機曾經是最普遍的家庭娛樂
(物+[be|get|become]+[used|accustomed]+to+原v),物被用作...
  ex:nylon is used to make stockings 尼龍用來製襪子
  ex:the old house is used to hold the toys 這個老舊的房子是用來容納這些玩具

 

慣用語有to只能接動名詞的有
look forward to期待,
ex: i am looking forward to seeing you soon 我盼望早一點看到你
devote...to(be devoted to)致力於...,
ex: many students devoted themselves to reading books in the library 在圖書館裡,有很多學生專心讀書
with [a view|an eye] to為了,
ex:he does it with an eye to making more money 他做此事只是為了多賺一些錢
pay attention to注意,
ex:students should pay attention to their studies 學生應該注意學業
其他還有
object to=be opposed to=have an objection to反對
dedicate...to(be dedicated to)獻身於...,
in addition to除...之外,owing to由於,according to根據,thanks to幸虧,take to喜歡 

 

參考資料:各大文法書與網路資料

2008-07-17 16:49:50發表   


 


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